1972 The UN General Assembly reacts to the ICJ ruling by establishing a United Nations Fund for Namibia.
Theo-Ben Gurirab, currently SWAPO’s representative in North America, is appointed UN Mission Chief.
Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua is appointed as SWAPO’s Head of Finance in Dar-Es-Salaam.
SA offers the Dama a Legislative Council. Construction begins on the Dama tribal capital, Khorixas, temporarily known also as "Welwitschia". The majority of Dama headmen reject the offer of a Legislative Council.
Dama living outside the proposed "homeland" reject the authority of Justus ||GaroŽb and the Damara Advisory Council, which is formed by a minority living in Damaraland.
These people become members of the Damara Executive Committee (DEC), led by Oscar Karuchab. Others are organised in the Damara Tribal Executive Committee (DTEC). The latter later also subscribes to the Namibia National Convention (NNC).
Namibia has 749 000 inhabitants, 90 000 of whom are "white".
There are 43 000 "black" contract labourers working in the developed southern economic sector of Namibia: some 11 000 in farming, 14 000 in the government service, commerce and industry, 3 000 in fishing and 3 000 in domestic service.
Good rains fall in the country. The railway line between Mariental and Salzbrunn is washed away.
PLAN fighters operate from Zambia against SA troops.
Matchless Mine 40 km west of Windhoek is closed.
Fishing quotas of 400 000 t in total are approved. In 1971, 72 363 tonnes of pilchard, 204 127 tonnes of anchovy and 80 193 tonnes of other pelagic fish are caught.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of SWA (ELC) holds its fourth synod at Otjimbingwe. Lucas de Vries becomes Preses of the ELC. Albertus Maasdorp who is favoured by the "white" members of the ELC is defeated.
25.01. In the aftermath of the strike of December 1971 thirteen persons appear before the Windhoek Magistrate Court. They are charged for contraventions of the "Masters and Servants" laws (1916/1920)(Proclamation No. 2 of 1916). The accused are: Harold Sam, Immanuel Mbolili, Erastus Shanila, Thomas Shepumba, Vilho Villiha, Cleopas Kapapu, Maiakias Hiloohamb, Lazarus Shikongo, Jason Nhituamata, Jonas Nejulu, Matupang Shimuefeleni and Leonard Nghipandula. At the end of the trial the accused are all sentenced to a small fine. They score a moral victory.
January-February Peasants rise in Ovamboland. A state of emergency is imposed by way of Emergency Proclamation R17 of 1972 (04.02.1972). This proclamation is one of the main legislative measures to intimidate and control the upsurge of "black" national political consciousness. Military measures are taken to stifle all political protest.
The December-1971-Strike also takes its toll in Ovamboland. Johannes Nangutuuala and Andreas Nuukuawo (Democratic Co-operative Party (DEMCOP)) and Johannes Otto (SWAPO) are arrested unter the proclamation. Other activists to be prosecuted are Jimmy Hmapula, Thomas Kamati, Keshi Nathaniel, Rehabeam Namuhaya, Shipanga Kanjouda, Shilikumye Hiveluah, Ndaxu Namuloc and Frieda-Nela Williams. In the case against Nangutuuala and Kamati, they are convicted in the Ondangwa Magistrate’s Court but their sentences are set aside by the SWA Division of the Supreme Court (13.08.1973).
The so-called "Grootfontein Agreement" leads to the dissolution of SWANLA, but does not really improve the situation.
01.02. Identity documents based on racial classification are introduced in Namibia.
UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim is ordered by the Security Council to contact the SA Government to negotiate a solution to the Namibia problem (UN SC Resolution 309). The Security Council again declares SA’s presence in Namibia illegal (UN SC Resolution 310).
The SA Government expels the Anglican Bishop of Damaraland, Colin O’Brien Winter, and three of his assistants, David de Beer, Stephen Hayes and Ms Halberstadt in terms of the Undesirables Removal Proclamation No. 50 of 1920. Winter’s successor becomes Richard Wood. On 16.06.1975, a deportation order is served on him in terms of Proclamation No. 50 of 1920 (Ed Morrow becomes Wood’s successor, but is also deported in July 1978).
13.02. The National Convention (NC) is further strengthened during a meeting in Rehoboth attended by parties like SWAUNIO, the Voice of the People Party, SWANU under Gerson Hitjevi Veii, NAPDO and the Association for the Preservation of the Tjamuaha-Maharero Royal House. The NC appoints Kapuuo as Chairman and Veii as Secretary. Other parties, including DEMCOP, the Herero Chiefs’ Council, the Nama Chiefs’ Council and the Damara Tribal Executive Committee (DTEC) later join the NC. The NC later refuses to participate in the South African Advisory Council for South West Africa (the constitutional predecessor of the Turnhalle Conference of 1975).
06./10.03. Waldheim visits both SA and Namibia. In Namibia he speaks to all parties (pro-apartheid and pro-independence). The pro-independence parties are the NC, SWAPO, the Herero Chiefs’ Council, the National Convention Independence Party (NACIP), NUDO, SWANU, the Rehoboth Volksparty and the Voice of the People Party. The pro- Apartheid forces are represented by some tribal elites in Ovamboland and the Kavango as well as some groups in Damaraland and in the "coloured" community. Romanus Kampungu, Chief-Councillor in the Kavango, explains to Waldheim that "if the United Nations would enforce a central government on the tribes, this would mean political suicide." He also strongly opposes the implementation of the name "Namibia" because "the Namib Desert represents only a part of the territory".
David Hoveka Meroro tries to present a petition to Waldheim, but is arrested with 100 SWAPO supporters, detained and later goes into exile.
26.04. Missionary Heinrich Vedder dies in Okahandja.

Namibia_Otjozondjupa_Okahandja_Vedder_1.JPG (304670 bytes)

House of the Rhenish Missionary Heinrich Vedder on the Land of the Rhenish Missionary Society in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

21.06. Three offshore oil concessions are issued. The Toscanini oil well is drilled onshore to a depth of 1 736 m.
June/July Many Dama go on strike for better working conditions and better wages, and against generally bad economic conditions in Damaraland.
July DEMCOP announces that the majority of "blacks" in Namibia reject the contract labour system.
01.08. After hearing Secretary-General Waldheim’s report (17.07.), the UN Security Council confirms that Namibia has the right to be independent within inviolable national borders.
The UN Council for Namibia requests all foreign companies to report on the working conditions of their employees. Waldheim’s mandate is extended by the Security Council.
The Security Council adopts UN SC Resolution 319. Alfred Escher is consequently appointed as Waldheim’s personal representative.
31.08. The first phase of the Kunene water supply system for Ovamboland is completed.
September SWAPO is given observer status at the UN Trusteeship Committee.
The State Conservatoire for Music is opened in Windhoek.
09.09. Naute Dam, south west of Keetmanshoop, is opened.
25.09. A UN delegation under Alfred Escher is nominated to tour both SA and Namibia.
12./29.10. Escher visits Namibia. He holds 74 meetings, all without the presence of SA officials. Due to the fact that Escher takes a friendly stance with the South African view of "bantustans" he is later denounced by SWAPO.
25.11. Direct dialling by telephone is for the first time possible between Namibia and South Africa. This system is later extended by a micro wave system between Windhoek, Keetmanshoop and Upington. The telephone exchanges grow from 99 to 467. There are 5 400 farm lines with a total distance of 46 466 km.
06.12. This delegation presents a report stating that its talks with inhabitants have revealed that the majority of Namibians reject both SA’s foreign rule and the "homelands" concept.
The UN Security Council again extends Waldheim’s mandate.
Late 1972  The South West African Non-European Unity Movement (SWANEUM) is formed as a rival to the National Convention. The prime mover is Andrew Kloppers. SWANEUM is supported by the Rehoboth Baster Association of Rehoboth, the Association for the Preservation of the Tjamuaha-Maharero Royal House and some Nama led by David Isaaks.
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