|1976||The Lusaka Manifesto confirms
that the decolonisation of Namibia by SA in collaboration with the UN would be a
prerequisite of "black" Africa for détente with Pretoria.
The UN General Assembly confirms SWAPO as "the sole and authentic representative of the Namibian people" (UNGA Resolution 146 (XXXI).
The SA Defence Force attacks the PLAN base at Shatotwa in Zamibia, causing losses on the SWAPO side.
Timothy Hadino Hishongwa becomes SWAPOs representative for Scandinavia, West Germany and Austria, based in Sweden.
John Ya Otto becomes SWAPOs Secretary for Labour and leader in exile of the National Union of Namibian Workers (NUNW).
Jesaya Nyamu becomes SWAPO's Vice Secretary for Information in Luanda/Angola.
SA decides to establish an Advisory Council for Namaland, and to grant self-government for Rehoboth and the Eastern Caprivi Strip. Namaland is planned to comprise 2,2 million hectares. The leader of the Nama delegation to the Turnhalle Conference, Daniël Luipert, declares that a political platform for the Nama has to be created. The SA Minister for Coloured, Rehoboth and Nama Relations, Hennie Smit, declares that a nation demanding development should have its own "fatherland", such as Namaland. Tribal entities for Berseba under Headman Stephanus Goliath and for Tses under Headman Joel Stephanus are not yet created. It is planned that Namalands main town will be erected at the Brukkaros station, while Gibeon and Berseba will be developed, as well as a hotel at Asab.
A faction of the Association for the Preservation of the Tjamuaha-Maharero Royal House joins SWAPO. Bartholomeus Gerhardt Karuaera, who was along with Clemence Kapuuo the secretary of Hosea Kutako, is one of the leaders of the Royal House.
NAPDO, which strongly opposes the Turnhalle Conference, withdraws from the NNC and joins SWAPO.
The DUF is renamed the South West African Peoples Democratic United Front (SWAPDUF). Its President is Joseph Haraseb and its Vice-President Engelhardt Christy. SWAPDUF forms an alliance with the DTA.
The National Independence Party (NIP) joins the Namibia National Front (NNF) (reconstituted again as the Namibia Independence Party (NIP) in 1981).
NNC office-bearers include, inter alia, SWAPO politicians Zephania Kameeta and Danny Tjongarero.
The exodus of "Portuguese whites" from Angola continues.
New conflicts arise around the disputed Kasikili Island in the Chobe River.
|January||At its annual congress the NNC calls for "dialogue with all other forces that are genuinely seeking the liberation of Namibia from foreign domination".|
|05./08.01.||The International Conference for Namibia in Dakar, Senegal, is organised by the International Institute for Human Rights based in Strasbourg. Three hundred international lawyers participate. SWAPOs liberation struggle is supported.|
|30.01.||The UN Security Council unanimously passes SC Resolution 385 which calls on SA to take the necessary steps to transfer power to the people of Namibia and to allow free elections by 31.08.1976. This resolution becomes the springboard for decisive action by five western countries (Canada, England, France, Germany and the USA).|
|February||Four "white" Namibians are killed by PLAN soldiers. Filemon Nangolo is arrested and charged for killing the farmers (together with Kanisius Hanilesi who escapes arrest but is later killed by a field fire while fighting with the police near Windhoek): Shirley Merle and Bertus Nico Louw near Grootfontein as well as Gerd and Elke Walters near Okahandja. Filemon Nangolo is subsequently sentenced to death and executed (30.05.1977) while he is still in a wheelchair as a result of the wounds he sustained during the arrest.|
|March/April||The frustrations of many exiled Namibians in Zambia come to a head - a full year after a heated meeting with SWAPO leaders in Lusaka where demands for a long overdue Party congress were presented (the rebellion has already been smouldering since June 1974). Matters are worsened by a rebellion by PLAN fighters in Zambias Western Province. External SWAPO later faces a crisis in the form of multiple detentions, Andreas Shipanga (former SWAPO Secretary) being the most prominent person detained in Zambia together with Solomon Mifima and Immanuel Engombe. SWAPO later calls the rebellion the "Shipanga Rebellion".|
|02./19.03.||The third session of the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference is held. Some "black" participants threaten to withdraw if the harsh interference of the NP continues. The legitimacy and credibility of the Conference are fundamentally undermined by the ambiguity of the SA Government, especially with regard to continuing the implementation of the Odendaal Plan.|
|11.03.||Danny Tjongarero states that the Turnhalle Conference plan "seems unacceptable because it divides the country on an ethnic basis".|
|25.03.||SA Minister of Defence PW Botha
announces in Parliament that SA will commence with the withdrawal of SADF troops from
SWAPO's PLAN starts to organise their troops within Angola, under the command of General Dimo Hamaambo. Angola's President Neto gives SWAPO the old iron mine of Cassinga as a transit centre. Lubango becomes SWAPO's military operational headquarters in southern Angola. SWAPO's Provisional Headquarters are moved from Lusaka in Zambia to Luanda in Angola. However, the South Africans remain in control of the Angolese air space and are able to install their ally UNITA at Jamba in south-eastern Angola, near the Caprivi Strip, in order to intercept PLAN soldiers.
|26.03.||Despite some initial military successes South Africa forced to withdraw from Angola under a storm of domestic and international condemnation.|
|April||The second group of parties (see above October 1975) participating in the Okahandja National Unity Conference transforms the Conference into the Namibia National Council, which disbands after most parties join the NNF in 1977.|
|01.04.||The Eastern Caprivi Strip under its new name, "Lozi", becomes a self-governed tribal entity. The new capital is Linyanti. The Mayuni Fwe (Mayuni is a village between Kongola and Sibbinda in the Mashi/Kwando river valleys) call themselves the "True Mafwe". There are some tensions between the Mafwe from Linyanti and the "True Mafwe". To distinguish themselves from the Linyanti-Fwe the "True Mafwe" call themselves "Mayuni" (Mayuni is also the Chief's name: currently: Tembwe Mayuni).|
|21.04.||On request of the SWAPO leadership in Zambia, 27 SWAPO members (many SWAPO Youth League members), including Andreas Shipanga together with Solomon Mifima and Immanuel Engombe, are arrested by the Zambian authorities. They are brought to Nampundwe Camp and later to prisons in Tanzania. Between 1 600 and 2 000 dissident PLAN fighters are rounded up in the Western Province and taken to Mboroma Camp near Kabwe in Zambia.|
||De Wet announces further measures
to improve security on the border between Ovamboland and Angola.
Self-government is granted to Rehoboth in terms of the "paternal laws" of 1872. A Chiefs Council will head the proposed Rehoboth Government. The SA Minister for Coloured, Rehoboth and Nama Relations, Hennie Smit, indicates that general elections for the Legislative Council for Rehoboth will take place in September 1977. In June 1977 elections are to be held for the Kaptein (Captain) of Rehoboth.
||The Bantu Investment Corporation under Johan Lerm creates its own development body for Kavango, known as Ekuliko Kavango Limited. Its projects are, inter alia, the Shadikongoro, Vungu-Vungo and Musese irrigation projects, and the Mangetti farming project.|
|29.-31-05.||SWAPO holds a national congress in Walvis Bay which totally rejects the Turnhalle Conference and endorses the leadership of SWAPO.|
|02.06.||The Turnhalle Constitutional Conference holds its fourth session.|
|04.06.||The Ya Otto Commission which was charged by SWAPO to investigate the circumstances which led to the rebellion of some SWAPO cadres between June 1974 and April 1976 submits its findings: 1. Enemy infiltration; 2. Power struggle within SWAPO; 3. Incompetence within the Party and 4. Misguided elements.|
|27.07.||Elections for the Lozi Legislative Assembly take place in the Eastern Caprivi Strip, with 83% of registered voters casting a vote. Chief Richard Mamili of the Fwe succeeds former Chief Minister, Subiya Chief M Moraliswani, as first Chief Minister of Lozi.|
|28.07.-02.08.||SWAPOs enlarged Central
Committee releases in Nampundwe, Zambia a new party constitution and political programme.
The party constitution seeks to redress some of the problems identified by the Ya Otto
Hidipo Hamutenya is elected to SWAPOs Central Committee and Politburo.
|August||Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda
and Mosé Tjitendero jointly open the United Nations Institute for Namibia (UNIN) in
Lusaka, which is to train Namibian administrators. UNIN was initiated by the UN
Commissioner for Namibia, Sean McBride. Hage Geingob becomes its Director. Hidipo
Hamutenya is one of its founding members.
Frans Stellmacher, Chairman of the Rehoboth Volksparty, dissolves this party and joins SWAPO so as to move from an ethnic to a Namibian dispensation.
|18.08.||During the fifth session of the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference, the delegates reach consensus on an interim three-tier Constitution providing for autonomous units as well as a national government with clearly-defined powers. It is suggested that an "interim government" should be established on 01.01.1977 and should remain in place for two years while a permanent government commission works out a Constitution for an independent Namibia. The constitutional plan of the Turnhalle provides for the institution of a "multi-racial" interim government, for independence by the end of 1978, and for maintaining the "homelands" and the division of government according to ethnic principles. The US Government, apparently not satisfied with this policy, involves Kissinger, US Secretary for Foreign Affairs, in Namibian matters (from April onwards). The UN Council for Namibia rejects the Turnhalle proposals.|
|24./27.08.||The National Party Congress takes place in Windhoek ("Uhuru Congress"). The congress still believes that an interim government would provide for the maximum autonomy of ethnic groups, and that the hegemony of "whites" would therefore not be challenged. The hardline Du Plessis-Van Zijl axis presses for the dismissal of Billy Marais, Turnhalle Conference Secretary and confidante of Dirk Mudge, in order to undermine Mudges position in the Turnhalle. Marius Maree is appointed in place of Marais. Vorster later announces that Walvis Bay will be incorporated into SA on 01.01.1977, and that he will implement the decisions of the Turnhalle even if this is not to the UNs liking, and that "South West Africa will not be handed over to SWAPO." These announcements further erode the credibility of the Turnhalle Conference.|
|15.09.||The Roman- Catholic Church opens all its private schools to all Namibians.|
|October||After three meetings have been
held between Vorster and Kissinger (June-September), the US comes up with a plan of its
own: the Western powers will support free and fair elections ("One Man, One
Vote") in a unitary Namibia.
The continued stratagem between the Turnhalle and the SA Government to exclude nationalist forces such as SWAPO and SWANU in the process of decolonisation, leads to a draft resolution of the "African group" in the UN to call for a mandatory arms embargo against SA. This resolution is blocked by a triple veto of the Western powers in the UN Security Council. Theo-Ben Gurirab, SWAPOs spokesman at the UN, strongly condemns this veto.
Rössing Uranium, a transnational firm of parent company Rio Tinto Zinc, begins to operate near Swakopmund. Rössing soon creates an extensive training programme for its personnel. Today Rössing is one of the largest opencast uranium mines in the world.
|29.11.||The polity speculates on whether Dirk Mudge will eventually be "shot down" by the Du Plessis-Van Zijl axis, or whether he will leave the NP due to his differences with the party.|
|20.12.||The UN General Assembly passes several resolutions. In Resolution 31/146 it supports the armed struggle of the Namibian people under the leadership of SWAPO, supports furthermore self-determination and independence and condemns the "constitutional talks" in Windhoek. In Resolution 31/152 the Assembly decides to grant SWAPO permanent observer status at the UN, and in Resolution 32/9 it condemns the pending annexation of Walvis Bay.|
|End 1976||The NNC breaks up due to
SWAPOs withdrawal. The rivalry between SWAPO and SWANU during the 1960s recurs in
the NNC in the 70s. SWAPO takes four groups with it into a merger: the Nama of
Gibeon, Vaalgras, Hoachanas and Keetmanshoop, under the leadership of Hendrik Witbooi.
Witbooi becomes SWAPO Secretary for Education and Culture in Namibia (until 1983).
Mburumba Kerina, who leads the pro-Turnhalle PROSWA/Namibia Foundation, supports the Turnhalle principles. He even goes so far as to allege that the Turnhalle has met every condition set by the OAU, UN, ICJ and "Lusaka Manifesto".