1990 Prior to independence, education in Namibia was characterised by inequality and fragmentation. Apartheid in education, training and culture led to differentiated access to employment and hence to wages. Learner-teacher ratios varied from 13 to 1 in schools under the "Administration for Whites" to 37 to 1 for schools under the "Administration for Ovambos". Inadequate provision for teachers and buildings meant large classes, often in excess of 50 learners. Books and teaching aids were also in short supply. The result of such severe limitation was a high drop-out rate and frequent repetition of grades. To change this situation is only one of the numerous challenges facing the incoming government of independent Namibia.
The diamond mine of Auchas at the Oranje River is brought into production.
01.01. On New Year’s Eve the Constituent Assembly votes unanimously for Namibia to become independent on 21 March 1990 (officially announced on 29.01.1990). This symbolic date must be seen as a remembrance of the occurrences in Sharpeville, South Africa, in March 1960.
10.01. TransNamib sells 40 locomotives, without informing the newly created Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication. This sale marks the beginning of TransNamib’s erosion of assets which leads ten years later to the financial problems of the Namibian railway company.
South Africa unilaterally closes the border post at Mata Mata, the entrance point from Namibia into the South African Kalahari Gemsbok Park.
02.02. A national flag and symbols are adopted for the new nation.

07.02. After the appointment of the Shadow Cabinet on 21.12.1989, a number of government ministers and senior officials attend the Tripartite Working Group on the Bushmen Issue which was established in December 1989. They plead to the Bushmen (San or Khoesan) that they are welcome to stay in Namibia and that they could contribute as citizens, that their land rights would be protected, that they could move and settle anywhere they want in Namibia and that the new Constitution would fully protect them. Sam Nujoma reiterates this pledge by a letter to the Bushmen groups. But, the Bushmen begin to realise that they cannot any more expect their former high salaries paid by the South Africans and that they would be better off -so many believe - in South Africa.
08.02. The designated Minister for Finance, Otto Herrigel, announces in his first official speech that independent Namibia will follow a pragmatic economic course. Namibia intends to stay for at least three years in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU). Furthermore he proposes the establishment of an independent Central Bank (later Bank of Namibia).
09.02. The Constituent Assembly unanimously adopts a new Constitution. This symbolically and materially ends an era of colonial oppression and resistance against foreign rule. It is adopted at an outdoor ceremony before the facade of the Tintenpalast. This is covered by a huge banner reciting the Preamble of the Constitution. Article 133 of the new Constitution provides that the Constituent Assembly would become the first National Assembly of Namibia, the first president being the person elected to that office in the Constituent Assembly.
Windhoek Municipality plans to celebrate Windhoek’s Centenary anger those people who believe the festivities would be honouring colonialism, as Windhoek is much older than hundred years. SWAPO declares that the liberation movement would have nothing to do with the Centenary celebrations. This development leads later to the cancellation of the planned Centenary celebrations.
14.02. The South African Defence Force (SADF) asks the ex-soldiers of the Bushmen (San or Khoesan) military units whether or not they want to move to South Africa. A vote is taken in each Bushmen village. Overall, 327 want to go to South Africa, 77 to Botswana and 255 would like to remain in Namibia. Sam Nujoma strongly rejects the idea of relocating Bushmen of Namibian origin, but the first group is relocated to South Africa on 20.02.1990. Shadow Minister for Land, Resettlement and Rehabilitation, Marco Hausiku, declares that it would be better if a period of time is allowed to elapse during which the Bushmen could think the matter over after the intense South African propaganda to which they had been exposed.
The Home Affairs Minister-Designate, Hifikepunye Pohamba, with just a few weeks of UNTAG’s mandate to run, declares that SWAPO has approached seven countries (Canada, Germany, Ghana, India, Nigeria, Pakistan and Sweden), seeking the continuance of their police, now members of UNCIVPOL, after the end of the mandate. Ghana, India, Nigeria and Pakistan agree to provide police support for a time after independence. As regards the establishment of a new National Army, there is a political need for a military nucleus by independence day. Such a nucleus of the future Namibian Defence Force (NDF) is in fact brought together and with, the help of the Kenyan battalion, given training by 21.03.1990.
16.02. The Constituent Assembly unanimously elects Sam Shafiishuna Nujoma President of the future independent state.
20.02. The Deputy Minister designate for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, travels to Luanda/Angola, to prepare an agreement in order to rebuild the destroyed road from Oshikango at the border between Namibia and Angola to Lubango and Namibe (Namibe-Corridor). This is followed by a further visit, together with the Angolan Ambassador to Namibia, Bento Ribiero, in July to finalise the agreement.
27.02. Dierks announces policy guidelines for transport and communications for the independent Namibia. Firstly the transport and telecommunications infrastructure between the two Namibias (first world and third world Namibia) has to be balanced by the establishment of engineering infrastructure in the so far neglected parts of the country, especially Ovamboland. Secondly the one-sided transport link to South Africa (noose or lifeline transport situation) has to expanded by the creation of new east-west-transport corridors to the landlocked neighbours in the east, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Trans Kalahari and Trans Caprivi highways) and the construction of the missing link between Keetmanshoop and Lüderitz, the Aus to Goageb highway. Environmental and social issues have to be brought into the future planning process of transport infrastructure. The unemployment has to be eased by the application of labour-based construction methods. Furthermore efficiency in the transport sector will be increased by deregulation and competition as well as a road sector reform based on privatisation. The reintegration of the Walvis Bay enclave will be a top priority for the new government.
Furthermore a commercial pilot training college is planned for Keetmanshoop. As far as any future transcontinental air services of Namib Air (the subsequent Air Namibia) are concerned, Dierks supports such an undertaking only with the back up of a strong international airline partner which has the essential resources which Namib Air lacks now and in the foreseeable future. He opposes Namib Air’s new flight between Windhoek and Frankfurt/Germany without a strong airline partnership, although, for political reasons, South African Airways (SAA) cannot be allowed to continue to use the traffic rights on this route. Therefore, there is currently no alternative but to allow Namib Air to operate this route.
28.02. The !Kung Traditional Authority appoints its Chief, ||’Aiha (traditional title) John N. Arnold in the Omatako Valley, followed by the Ju|’hoansi Traditional Authority, which elects the traditional leader, ||’Aiha Tsamkxao #Oma, in Tsumkwe on 05.07.
End February After an official visit to Angola (21.01.) Nujoma calls on Congo, Algeria, Libya and Kuwait to thank these countries for the support for Namibia’s liberation struggle.
05.03. Angola’s Foreign Minister, Van Dunem, reiterates Angola’s concern over the porosity of the Namibian frontier. He speaks of the efforts to negotiate an end to Angola’s war with UNITA and to bring about national reconciliation in Angola. However, UNITA is increasing its military activities.
Meanwhile, the Angolan government is very much aware of developments in South Africa. Van Dunem reports, that SA’s Foreign Minister, Pik Botha, had mentioned to him that South Africa wants to establish conditions for peace and stability in all southern Africa countries. Apartheid, Botha had said, has been "a very serious mistake", and the whole system of "white" hegemony has to be abolished very quickly.
07.03 At Omega (West Caprivi), members from the Tripartite Working Group on the Bushmen Issue meet with Bushmen (San or Khoesan) elders, then with about 150 ex-soldiers of the Bushmen. The SWAPO delegation leader, Peter Naholo, says he has brought a message from President Nujoma, personally, of reconciliation, protection and opportunities for all, without discrimination. The Bushmen should recall that South Africa has its own problems, which are going to deepen. He says: "It’s for you to decide. We are not forcing you one way or other. But, you must understand that if you decide to go, there will be no coming back". Naholo advise them to stay in Namibia in which they are genuinely welcome, rather than depart for some foreign country. In reply, one Bushmen leader says that they had already taken their decision. They feel they are being pressured. They have chosen their future one year ago, and would not change their minds each time somebody visits Omega. At the Bushmen village of Mangetti Dune the same routine and much of the same discussion takes place. The leaders, when asked why the Bushmen want to leave their native country, refer to incidents of discrimination and hostility towards Bushmen in Namibia. Because they have decided to leave, they have sold their houses and cattle, and there is now only one way to go - south.
12./13.03. 1 340 Bushmen and their dependants - and one day later - 585 leave for Kimberley in South Africa. The move will be complete on 16.03.1990, five days before Namibia’s independence.
15.03. The Namibian Department of Post and Telecommunications proposes the issuing of a set of stamps (designed in South Africa), depicting the Namibian independence. This issue nearly causes a stir because the Deputy Minister designate for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, rejects the stamp design because the liberation struggle leading to the hard won independence is not pictured. He insists on one of the three stamps on a motive of open hands releasing a dove of peace with some broken chains around the wrists. This again is turned down by the South African Government. Only after a threat by Dierks to make the issue public and not to allow the publishing of the independence stamps, Dierks’ design is accepted and the stamps released.
21.03. The year of Namibia’s independence brings historic rains to the country, one of the best rainy seasons in living memory. Here, rain means not only growth and fertility: it means god is watching over you.
Today the Republic of Namibia is born, with Sam Nujoma its first President. Nujoma is sworn in by UN Secretary-General, Javier Péres de Cuéllar. 30 000 spectators in the Windhoek Sport Stadium view the great event. The independence celebrations are witnessed by representatives of 147 countries including 20 heads of state. Extraordinary sights are to be seen. Leaders meet whom international politics had previously precluded from official meetings - FW De Klerk meets with Yassir Arafat, Kenneth Kaunda and the great South African leader, just released from prison, Nelson Mandela who makes a precisely timed arrival, immediately before proceedings begin. At the beginning of the proceedings turmoil erupts. Security people push some Prime Ministers into their seats. The new British High Commissioner lands on the lap of Karen Dierks. The turbulence results in some delays. Independence is delayed by 15 minutes. And the new proud flag of independent Namibia doesn’t fly because there is no breeze, and the South African flag droops limply, just as does the Namibian flag, as it goes up.
A corner stone of the national policy of the new independent Namibia is the policy of national reconciliation. The policy seeks to address the consequences of the legacy of Namibia’s violent past, dating back to German colonial times, the South African oppression and effects of the apartheid system together with human rights violations committed during the liberation struggle. This policy of national reconciliation will also redress economic disparities in order to achieve the fruits of the Namibian independence.
The 78 members (including six appointed members by the President) of the National Assembly of the Republic of Namibia are sworn in. Mosé Penaani Tjitendero is the elected Speaker of the lower house of Parliament.
22.03. The last South African Administrator-General Louis Pienaar is given an official farewell by President Sam Nujoma.
28.03. UNTAG’s mandate is coming to an end. When it pulls back from its 236 premises, it does so with remarkable speed.
31.03. In order to protect her (by foreign nations) depleted Atlantic Ocean fishing grounds, Namibia pleads to the International Commission for South East Atlantic Fisheries (ICSEAF) to urge the member states to withdraw all foreign fishing trawlers from Namibian territorial waters. Subsequently Spain informs the European Community that this move risks 6 000 employment possibilities on Spanish fishing trawlers. Countries like Spain, Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union and the Scandinavian countries try intensively to obtain Namibian fishing quotas.
The value of the pre-independence hake catch can give some idea of the value of the depleted Namibian fish. From 1965 to 1989, according to the declared catch reflected in International Commission for the South-East Atlantic Fisheries (ICSEAF) statistics,             10 664 600 tonnes of hake were removed from Namibian waters, valued at 1996 prices at US$ 15 084 million. Virtually nothing of this accrued to Namibia.
However, the combination of favourable environmental conditions and the implementation of a sound Namibian fishing policy for the restoration of the stocks, brings about a marked improvement in the fish stocks in the first part of the 1990s.
01.04. Namibia is admitted to the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) as the tenth member state.
10.04. The Minister Foreign Affairs, Theo-Ben Gurirab, announces that Namibia will follow a pragmatic approach against South Africa but will not send an ambassador as yet. The question of the reintegration of the Walvis Bay enclave will not be taken up in the moment. Unofficially it is agreed that Namibia will have free access to the Port of Walvis Bay.
12.04. South Africa announces the appointment of a permanent diplomatic representative in Windhoek.
17.04. In UN SC Resolution 652 the UN Security Council resolves to recommend to the General Assembly to admit the Republic of Namibia as member to the world body.
17./19.04. President Sam Nujoma visits Zimbabwe.
23.04. The General Assembly accepts with GA Resolution S-18/1 (1990) Namibia as 160th member of the organisation.
26.04. Namib Air inaugurates its first transcontinental flight from Windhoek to Frankfurt, Germany.
27.04 The first Parliamentarian Question in the history of the new National Assembly (Member Barney Barnes of the DTA) deals with a speech of the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, before the International Tourism Fair in Berlin during March. Dierks demands a pragmatic attitude by South Africa in the question of the reintegration of the Walvis Bay enclave. Otherwise Namibia would refuse traffic rights for South African planes in the Namibian air space. Although the speech sparks sharp criticism in the ranks of the opposition parties, a wide range of Namibians applaud Dierks' sentiments. He is fully exonerated by both the Prime Minister, Hage Geingob and the Minister of Works, Transport and Communication, Richard Kapelwa-Kabajani.
01.05. President Sam Nujoma announces that the fight against unemployment enjoys top priority. He further declares the future establishment of a mixed economy between state owned and private enterprises.
05.05. The Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) comes into being as successor of the South West African Broadcasting Corporation (SWABC). First Managing Director is Nahum Gorelick. His deputy is Piet Coetzer of the past SWABC.
19.05. A Border Security Agreement is concluded between Namibia and Angola. A Joint Border Commission will supervise the agreement. This agreement is expanded by a Joint Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Utilisation of the Kunene River Basin (18.09.).
23.05. The National Assembly adopts the Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone of Namibia Bill. This legislation creates Exclusive Economic Zone (200 Miles) along the Atlantic coast will protect Namibia’s fishing interests.
28./31.05. Negotiations take place between the governments of Namibia (Minister of Education, Culture and Sport, Nahas Angula) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR)(Minister of Education, Prof. Meyer) in Berlin. The topic is the return of several hundred Namibian children who found refuge in the GDR during the liberation war (the so-called "GDR-Children"). 291 are school children in a school (Schule der Freundschaft) at Staßfurt near Magdeburg. 134 are pre-school children from the SWAPO children hostel at Bellin near Güstrow. Eight are small children. The children are accompanied by 29 Namibian adults.
29.05. The Namibian Government maintains close ties with other African independence movements. Consequently Namibia takes up diplomatic relations with the Algeria supported Frente Polisario.
01.06. The Organisation for African Unity (OAU) establishes a permanent diplomatic mission in Windhoek.
04.06. During the first session of the National Assembly Prime Minister Hage Geingob supports a parliamentarian motion by the DTA and other opposition parties to establish an All-Party Commission to investigate the fate of SWAPO detainees which allegedly are still being held in Angola (the so-called "spy-crisis"). However, the Commission is not successful in completing its task. Therefore, at the beginning of November the Prime Minister proposes a motion in the National Assembly to ask the International Red Cross to look into the matter.
Namibia becomes a full member of the Tripartite Agreement between South Africa, Angola and Cuba.
05.06. A crisis looms in the Rehoboth area. The former South African Policy of Apartheid is manifested in a demand by the political leadership of the Baster, under the Baster Captain Diergaardt, for autonomy for the Rehoboth area. During an unofficial Referendum, 84,1% of 9 289 Baster voters call for a far reaching autonomy and special rights for the Baster. The conflict escalates because Diergaardt refuses to vacate his official residence. A High Court decision (25.09.) influences the Baster to accept the court ruling. A visit of President Nujoma on 03.11. defuses the situation.
11.06. The Navachab gold mine comes into operation. It is envisaged to mine two tons of gold annually. The mine is run by the Erongo Mining and Exploration Company Ltd. Further shareholders are the De Beers Consolidated Mines, the Anglo-American Company, the Canadian Metal Mining Corporation (a subsidiary company of the German Metallgesellschaft). Rössing Uranium concludes an agreement with a French concern in order to mine 5 200 tons Uranium Oxide between 1995 and 2002. In spite of this Rössing Uranium has to curb its production to 75% of its capacity. The tin production at the Uis Tin Mine is abandoned due to low tin world market prices. Also Tsumeb Corporation Limited (TCL) announces losses due to low copper prices.
12.06./15.06. The Southern African Transport and Communications Commission (SATCC) (Maputo/ Mozambique) of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC)(founded 1980 at Gaborone, Botswana), initiated by the Namibian Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, approves at Lilongwe, Malawi, road projects for the Trans Kalahari and Trans Caprivi Highways, a Zambezi Bridge between Namibia (Katima Mulilo) and Zambia (Sesheke), the Aus to Goageb highway and the Ovambo Road Network Master Plan. After the meeting the ten SADCC Ministers of Transport are received by President Hastings Kamuzu Banda in Blantyre.
21.06. Shots are fired by unknown offenders on the houses of the Ministers of Defence, Peter Mweshihange and Home Affairs, Lucas Pohamba.
21./22.06. The International Donor Conference for Namibia takes place in New York. This conference is awaited with high expectations, also to address the expected budget deficit inherited by the SA Colonial Administration to the tune of R 500 Million. The pledged US $ 200 Million is not meeting the Namibian expectations. President Nujoma appeals to the conference to grade Namibia as "Least Developed Country", in spite of the relatively high average per-capita income of US $ 1  044 (1988), and in the light of the extreme skew income relations between the rich, mainly "white" and the poor, mainly "black" income groups.
Namibia joins the European Community sponsored Lomé Agreement and gets subsequently access to development aid to R 60 million by the European Community. Rand 14 million is provided as budget assistance and a further R 14 million for five development projects. Namibia also becomes a member of the European Community sponsored African/ Caribbean/Pacific member states. A compromise is found in the allocation of an beef export quota (13 000 tons annually with 10 500 tons for 1991) to the European Community.
End June The Kenyan battalion of the former UNTAG is replaced by the first Namibian infantry battalion. This marks the beginning of the Namibian Defence Force which reaches 5 000 soldiers by the end of 1990. In the spirit of the policy of national reconciliation , the battalion consists of members of the former PLAN and the former SWATF forces. In the same vain also members of the former colonial administration and the SWA Police are kept in the new Namibian Civil Service.
Namibia invites the Secretary General of the African National Congress (ANC), Alfred Nzo.
30.06. The newspaper The Namibian reports that 500 "white" extremists of the former colonial dispensation plan to overthrow the new Namibian Government. On 05.08. a bomb is thrown on the Namibian. Later (end of August, beginning of September and on 12.10.) ten "white" men are arrested. Before the court case for high treason can be opened on 08.10., most of them manage to flee to South Africa.
06.07. The Minister for Finance, Otto Herrigel tables the Budget for the Financial Year 1990/91. The budget makes provision for an expenditure of R 2 576 million against an expected revenue of R 2 336 million. No tax increases are envisaged. The major share of the total budget goes to the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication (R 550 million), followed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (R 469 million), the Ministry of Finance (R 379,5 million) and the Ministry of Health and Social Services (R 352 million). The biggest part of the capital expenditure of R 261 million goes to the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication, mainly for road projects as proposed and planned by the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, (Trans Kalahari and Trans Caprivi highways, the Aus to Goageb highway and a new surfaced road between Gibeon Station to Gibeon).
17.07. The Cabinet of the Republic of Namibia approves new consolidated political and administrative regional structures for the country. According to the recommendations of the Delimitation Commission, chaired by Gerhard Tötemeyer, Namibia will be subdivided into 13 regions. These regions form the base to select the second chamber of Parliament, the National Council. The elections have to take place within two years. For the Region of Caprivi the Cabinet decides on the name Liambezi. Regional maps and plans are successively printed, but some tribal complaints result in the later retention of the colonial name Caprivi. Some regional names, as suggested by the Commission, are rejected by Cabinet. Mopane Region becomes Omusati, Maroela becomes Ohangwena and Waterberg makes headway for the Otjozondjupa Region. During the same cabinet session, Namibia’s new national anthem is accepted which was written and composed by Axali Doeseb: "Namibia land of the brave - Freedom fight we have won - Glory to their bravery - Whose blood waters our freedom". On 11.11.1991 Namibia’s national anthem is adopted by the National Assembly (National Anthem of the Republic of Namibia Bill).
The Cabinet also approves the opening of 18 Namibian Embassies and Diplomatic Missions, of which nine will be established in the near future. These include High Commissions in London, Lagos and Lusaka, Embassies in Moscow, Washington, Addis Ababa and Stockholm, a Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York and a Permanent Mission to the European Union in Brussels. Further Diplomatic Missions are envisaged in Berlin (GDR)(the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, has already received a principal assurance from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, that Namibia could obtain the former SWAPO Embassy in Berlin, Wilhelmsruhe
for a nominal price but this is later not followed up by the Permanent Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Andreas #Guibeb), Paris, Harare, Beijing, Algiers, New Delhi, Tokyo and Luanda. By this time Namibia already has signed more than 100 agreements on the establishment of Diplomatic missions in Namibia (21 credentials of Ambassadors and High Commissioners are received to date).
23.07. President Ketumile Masire from Botswana is the first head of state on a state visit to Namibia. His top priority is the speedy completion of the Trans Kalahari Highway. The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, hands over to him his planning study for a Trans Kalahari Railway Line from South Africa via Botswana to the Port of Walvis Bay.
01.08. In subsequence of the Cabinet Decision dated 17.07. the Government appoints Regional Commissioners for the 13 regions. In the spirit of the policy of national reconciliation members of other political parties and former SWAPO detainees are also appointed.
The Namibian Central Bank (later Bank of Namibia) is established with a founding capital of R 40 Million. The Minister for Finance, Otto Herrigel, announces that Namibia will get her own currency (Namibia Dollar) within two years.
02./05.08. President Sam Nujoma visits Zambia.
03.08. TransNamib changes the name "Namib Air" into "Air Namibia".
26./31.08. The "GDR-Children" are brought back to Namibia. They are accompanied by two members of the last, democratically elected GDR Parliament (Volkskammer): Anne-Katrin Glase (Christian Democratic Party (CDU)) and Jürgen Leskien (Partei Demokratischer Sozialisten (PDS)). The return is organised by the Repatriation, Resettlement and Reconstruction Committee (RRR Committee). The children are initially accommodated in the Peoples Primary School at Katutura (Windhoek). After the re-unification of Germany (03.10.1990) assists the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in the education of the "GDR-Children".
27./30.08. Prime Minister Hage Geingob visits Mozambique.
Beginning September The Interessengemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger Südwester (IG) holds its 13th annual congress. The IG is now named Interessengemeinschaft Deutschsprechender für Namibia (IG).
03./07.09. President Sam Nujoma visits Botswana.
11.09. The UN Council for Namibia dissolves itself.
18.09. President Nujoma meets Angola’s President, dos Santos, in Lubango, Angola.
20.09. Nujoma announces that an attractive investment climate will be created and that a pilot training college is planned for Keetmanshoop by British Aerospace (as initiated by the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks). The declared Exclusive Economic Zone (200 Miles) along the Atlantic coast will protect Namibia’s fishing interests and benefits the economy.
27.09. During the 45. Session of the UN General Assembly President Nujoma renews his appeal from the International Donor Conference for Namibia in New York (21. to 22.06.) to grant Namibia "Least Developed Country" status. Subsequently several countries grant donor assistance. Germany becomes with US $ 60 Million the biggest donor, followed by Sweden (US $ 16 Million), Norway (US $ 11 Million), Finland (US $ 10 Million), the USA (US $ 10 Million) and Denmark (US $ 6 Million). Other countries like Great Britain, the Netherlands, France, Italy and South Africa pledge various levels of donor assistance. The organisational framework of Namibia’s donor assistance is aggravated because the National Planning Commission is still in its infancy.
23.10. The former Chief of the Secret Service of PLAN, Solomon "Jesus" Hawala becomes the Commander of the Namibian Defence Force, after the Namibian Cabinet had disapproved such a move in August. Due to his involvement into the treatment of former SWAPO detainees in Angola, the Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN) criticises the appointment. The NUNW supports Hawala’s engagement.
End October The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, announces at Swakopmund concrete plans to increase the efficiency in the transport sector by deregulation and competition as well as a road sector reform based on privatisation. He stresses that road maintenance costs have to be cut by ensuring that existing regulations on axle loads are complied with and that the Namibian rail system has to play a full part in freight operations. Road users have to pay what they consume and therefore an equitable, fair, cost-reflective and transparent road user charging system has to be put in place. As an initial step a Transport Advisory Board has to be established as a new statutory body representing all transport interests. Reserved goods permits for road hauliers will be phased out and the road haulier market will be opened to all Namibians.
Beginning November Air Namibia announces new regional flights to Gaborone, Harare and Lusaka.
01.11. In order to balance "the two Namibias", Dierks makes known a major road upgrading programme for the formerly neglected Ovamboland. This programme will be put into effect in six phases. Phase one consists of the immediate rehabilitation of 450 km of gravel and earth roads in order to provide a skeleton network of acceptable secondary roads. Roads to be improved are the Oshakati to Okahao road with a link to Oshikuku, the Omafu to Mpungu (Kavango regional border) road via Eenhana and Elundu, the Omafu to Okalongo road via Engela and Ongenga, the Onethindi to Eenhana road via Oniipa and Oshigambo, the Onethindi to Olukonda road, the Onathinge to Elundu road via Okankolo, the Outapi (Ombalantu) to Okahao road via Tsandi, the Outapi to Okalongo road, the Tsandi to Onesi road and the Okahao to Onaanda road. Special emphasis is laid on the concept of appropriate engineering standards for low volume roads which are cost-optimised and economically and financially feasible, taking into account social problems like unemployment, gender balance and environmental arguments. To this effect labour-based construction methods will be used. Two labour-based test sections (Spoorbaan test section near Oshakati and the Okahao to Onaanda road) are initiated during this year. This basic road backbone network has to be completed within the next five years. Phase two consists of the Ovambo Road Network Master Plan, pointing out priorities for the construction, upgrading and maintenance standards to stimulate economic growth in Ovamboland and capacity building mechanisms. The emphasis also lies on new road links to Angola (Namibe Corridor) and a new link road to the Kavango. Phase three focusses on the speedy construction of two highways, the Oshakati to Ongenga road via Okatana, Endola and Omungwelume and the Oshikuku to Okalongo roads. Phase four concentrates on new feeder roads to agricultural growth points like a road between Oshikango to Odibo. This phase also includes the further upgrading of some projects to bituminous standards in the next five years. Phase five deals with the development of appropriate engineering standards for the construction and maintenance in Ovamboland with a special emphasis on solutions to the peculiar road building material problems experienced in Ovamboland. Phase six again focusses on the upgrading of existing paved roads in the area. Some of these roads carry among the highest traffic loads in Namibia. The financing of these ambitious projects has to be realised from Namibian budget allocations and donor assistance from various countries. The realisation of all these ambitious projects in the next ten years comprises one of the greatest successes of the SWAPO-Government.
05.11. President Nujoma warns that foreign fishing trawlers violating Namibian territorial waters would be punished.
The private German airline LTU tries to land at Windhoek International Airport, without landing rights or any air services agreement between Namibia and Germany in place. Temporary landing rights are granted by the Namibian Government as an exception and in the interest of the passengers.
25.11. Five Spanish fishing trawlers fishing illegally in Namibian waters are captured by the Namibian Authorities. They transport Namibian fish to the value of R 15 million. The five captains are arrested and the crew released from prison on 15.12.
26.11. After the President has until now proclaimed Namibian public holidays such as the commemoration of the "Old Location Uprising (10.12.1959)", the battle of Omugulu-gOmbashe (26.08.1966) or the South African raid on Cassinga (04.05.1978), the National Assembly passes the Public Holidays Bill.
27.11. The Cabinet approves the development of the Namibe-Corridor between Angola and Namibia.
14.12. Prime Minister Hage Geingob announces that the Namibian Government donates one million Rand to the African National Congress (ANC).
15.12. The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, makes known a major telecommunications programme in the so far neglected north, especially in Ovamboland. He announces that Namibia with 5,4 telephone lines per 100 inhabitants does not compare too bad with the world average of 19,1 lines, but this figure has to be balanced between "the two Namibias" and brought to 10 lines within ten years.

New Roads in Ovamboland, built after Independence

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District Road 3605 from Oluno to Uukwiyo in the Oshana Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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District Road 3625 between Oshigambo and Ondobe (Ohangwena Region) in the Oshikoto Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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Main Road 110 between Elundu, east of Eenhana, and Okongo in the Ohangwena Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Ohangwena.D3608_2.jpg (94894 bytes)Owambo.Ohangwena.D3608_3.jpg (53526 bytes)

District Road 3608 between Engela and Ongenga in the Ohangwena Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.Owambo.Ohangwena.D3609_2.jpg (66534 bytes)

District Road 3609 between Ongenga and Oshakati in the Ohangwena Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.D3608_4.jpg (73173 bytes)

District Road 3608 between Okalongo and Anamulenge in the Omusati Region: Dry Season
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.D3615_1.jpg (62365 bytes)

District Road 3615 between Oshikuku and Elim in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.D3626_1.jpg (70431 bytes)

District Road 3626 between Okahao (Ongandjera) and Etilyasa in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.M0123_2.jpg (70056 bytes)Owambo.Omusati.M0123_5.jpg (66061 bytes)

Main Road 123 between Outapi and Tsandi in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.D3633_1.jpg (63202 bytes)

District Road 3633 between Tsandi and Omugulu-g'Ombashe in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.D3617_1.jpg (92950 bytes)

District Road 3617 between Onesi and the Kaokoveld in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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