|1992||This year again doesnt
alleviate the inherited social imbalance between "black" and "white"
communities. The average annual per-capita income for 90% of the "black"
community lies at US$ 85. A further 5% of the total population reaches US$ 500 per annum,
while the average annual incomes of the mainly "white" group arrive at US$ 16
000. The economic crisis in the mining sector, with the exception of the export of
diamonds, continues. New concerted efforts by the Government to encourage petroleum
exploration, especially of-shore-investigations, bring renewed hope to the mining sector.
Production in the fishing sector increases during the year. The tourism has considerably
increased since independence (the number of foreign visitors with 228 000 annual guests
has tripled: 60% come from South Africa, the second largest group from Germany). This year
the turn-over in tourism is R 507 million. Guest farms and lodges mushroom all over the
A prolonged drought affects more than 625 000 people (as estimated by the Namibia Early Warning and Food Information System), approximately 50% of the total population. The output of maize and mahangu hits low points during the two droughts in 1991/92 and 1993/94. With regard to maize, total production drops to 8 000 tons during 1991/92 and 13 100 tons during 1993/94. This must be compared with the annual average of 27 200 tons annually. Mahangu reflects a similar pattern. During the 1991/92 season, output drops to a low of 15 000 tons, the lowest for many years.
The Agronomic Industry Proclamation (AG 11 of 1985) is repealed and the Namibian Agronomic Board is now run by the Agronomic Industry Act, Act 20 of 1992.
The Ministry of Trade and Industry launches the "White Paper on Industrial Development" which constitutes the first attempt to provide a coherent set of measures for the successful development of a Namibian industry.
As a result of the critical human resources problem with unemployment, illiteracy and a shortage of skilled manpower that Namibia inherited, the Ministry for Labour takes a concerted effort to put mechanisms in place to address vocational training. Three important policy instruments, the National Vocational Training Policy, the National Vocational Training, Testing and Certification System and the Vocational Training Act, 1992 are put in place. The Act makes provision for the establishment of the Vocational Training Board and its Trade Advisory Committee, the registration of the Vocational Training Centre and the creation of the Namibia Trade Testing Centre and Vocational Training Fund.
|January||New conflicts arise around the
disputed Kasikili Island in the Chobe River. Members of the Botswana Defence Force shoot
at Namibian fishermen. Botswana soldiers enter the island and hoist the Botswana flag.
With the new school year commencing, the current quartal system is replaced by trimesters.
|20./21.01.||The Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs visits Namibia.|
|23./24.01.||A high ranking delegation of UNITA visits the country.|
|27.01.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, brings an end to the direct appointment of architects and consulting engineers for large civil engineering projects of the Government. For the first time the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication uses a competition to decide on a contract. Dierks chairs the architecture competition for the new Hospital at Eenhana in the Ohangwena Region. The project is entirely funded by the French Ministry for Economic Development Cooperation. Also the contract for a new hospital at Engela which is funded by the Finnish Government will be allocated on the base of a competition (scheduled for March 1992).|
|30.01./01.02.||The French Minister for Economic Development Cooperation is on an official visit to Namibia. It is not clear whether this visit has anything to do with the purchase of a French plane for the President.|
|31.01.||President Sam Nujoma leaves for official visits to Nigeria, Ghana and Gabon.|
|February||Cabinet approves a livestock
marketing scheme for the Northern Communal Areas (NCA). In terms of this scheme the
state-owned Meat Corporation of Namibia (Meatco) takes over the processing facilities
previously run by the pre-independence First National Development Corporation (FNDC).
Meatco also takes over the responsibility of procuring cattle for the abattoirs in
Oshakati and Katima Mulilo. Another important improvement is that the new marketing system
brings about is that a uniform price for livestock throughout Namibia has to be paid. All
producers of beef in the country are paid according to the same price structure.
The Agricultural Bank of Namibia (Agribank) extends its original mandate to become more responsive to the financial needs of communal farmers. Thus, the Affirmative Action Loan Scheme is initiated as a result of a Cabinet decision. In terms of the scheme, Agribank provides loans for a 25 year period at interest rates which are subsidised by government.
|04.02.||The newly appointed National Monuments Council (NMC) under the chairmanship of Peter Katjavivi proclaims three historic sites as national monuments. The first is the site of 5Khauxa!nas-Schans Vlakte which consists of ruins from the pre-colonial era which serves as an important reminder of the struggle against colonialism dating from a very early stage in Namibian history. The settlement belonged to the Orlam Afrikaners who fled over the Oranje River in the 18th century in the face of European encroachment. It was also the refuge of Bondelswart leader, Jakob Marengo, who fought German colonialism between 1903 and 1907. The ruins were discovered by Klaus Dierks in 1986 (the proclamation of this site is still not effected to date). The second one is the old Baobab tree at Outapi (the "Post Office Tree" at Ombalantu) in the Omusati Region. The third site is the Old Location Cemetery in Windhoek where the fallen heroes of the Old Location Uprising, December 1959, are buried.|
|11.02.||The Cabinet appoints a Technical Committee on Commercial Farmland (TCCF) under the auspices of the Office of the Prime Minister. It has to investigate the implementation of the recommendations of the Land Conference of 1991. It is tasked to create comprehensive, fair and transparent tax on commercial farm land.|
|25.02.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, orders the removal of two old German field guns in front of the building of the National Assembly which most probably were used against Namibian resistance fighters at the beginning of the 20th century. The guns are to be shifted to the Historical Museum. This results in an outcry, especially from some members of the German-speaking community. These people are not able to understand that the colonial past is differently viewed by the majority of Namibians who cannot share these German sentiments.|
|29.02./02.03.||President Sam Nujoma visits the Islamic Republic of Iran. The visit is reciprocated by a high-ranking Iran delegation during middle of June.|
|11.03.||The Minister of Finance, Otto Herrigel, tables the Additional Budget for 1991/92. He ensures that Namibias financial position and the general economic outlook are sound. The original deficit for the Financial Year 1991/92 decreases from R 314 million to R 93 million. Herrigel announces further that the inherited colonial debts to South Africa of R 826,6 million will be paid back as from 1995 in 17 instalments of R 78,5 million each.|
|Middle March||The leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO), Yassir Arafat, informs President Nujoma and the SWAPO members of the National Assembly on the situation in the Middle East and the stand of the Arab-Israeli negotiations.|
|20.03.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, signs the contract for the construction of a new surfaced road from Oshakati to Okahao in the Oshana and Omusati regions (Main Road 111: 71 km for R 50,290 million). The contractor is Karibib Mining and Construction Company Limited.|
|25.03.||The Namibian Communications Commission Act, 1992 (Act No. 4 of 1992) takes effect. With the power invested in it, the Namibian Communications Commission (NCC) opens the Namibian broadcasting industry for competition. Since independence broadcasting licenses are granted to both independent radio and television stations. The first to appear on the market is M-Net Namibia, owned by Multi-Choice Namibia and the SWAPO owned company Kalahari Holdings. The Reo-TV, owned by Mr. Brodman, gives local television coverage to the Rehoboth community. This is followed by independent radio stations like Channel Seven, run by Media for Christ; Radio 99, established on 20.04.1994 by Rolf-Dieter Lange and Mario Aita and owned by Democratic Media Holding and Partners; Radio Energy owned by Kalahari Holdings and another music channel Radio Wave owned by Rob Thomson. Later some community based radio stations follow. The KCR Radio Station (Katutura Community Radio) starts broadcasting to the residents of Windhoek-Katutura and Windhoek-Khomasdal in 1995/96. A second community based radio service is launched at Eenhana in the Ohangwena Region with assistance from UNESCO during 1998. UNESCO also provides support for a community radio service in the Caprivi Region.|
|28.03.||The last edition of the Namibia Nachrichten (NN) is printed. The NN amalgamates with the English weekly Times of Namibia and the Afrikaans weekly, Sondag Republikein, to a new German weekly newspaper, Tempo (as from 04.04.), of the Republikein Group (later Democratic Media Holding and Partners) of the DTA Chairman, Dirk Mudge.|
|Beginning of April||The Prime Minister of Tanzania, John Malecela, visits the country.|
|07.04.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, visits together with the Deputy Minister for Agriculture, Water and Rural Development, Kaire Mbuende, Zambia. It is agreed between the two countries to improve the transport chain (the Trans Caprivi Highway Corridor), especially under the current drought condition in the region ("the Grain Bridge to Zambia"). Dierks meets the Zambian Minister for Energy, Transport and Communication, Andrew Kashita and his Deputy Minister, Gilbert Mululu. It was agreed that transport barriers in southern Africa have to be removed.|
|10.04.||President Nujoma announces his second cabinet re-shuffle. The main reason is the resignation of the Minister of Finance, Otto Herrigel (due to his conservative budget policy concerning state credits and due to an information deficit in the purchase of a presidential jet). His successor is the former Minister of Agriculture, Water and Rural Development, Gerd Hanekom who is viewed as a follower of a softer line regarding an official budgetary credit policy. The former Deputy Minister for Trade and Industry, Anton von Wietersheim becomes Hanekoms successor. Rick Kukuri is appointed as Deputy Minister of Finance. The Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Richard Kapelwa-Kabajani, takes over the Ministry for Land, Resettlement and Rehabilitation. Marco Hausiku becomes new Minister for Works, Transport and Communication. John Mutorwa, the former Regional Commissioner in the Kavango, becomes Deputy Minister of Water Affairs in the Office of the President.|
|18.04.||Kgoshi (traditional title) Hubert Tidimalo Ditshabue is sworn in as new Tswana Chief in Aminuis.|
|End April||The Finnish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Martti Ahtisaari, the former UN Special Representative for Namibia, visits the country.|
|Beginning of May||The Nigerian President, General Babangida, visits at the occasion of the International Trade Fair in Windhoek the country. He presents President Nujoma with a gift of R 1,5 million.|
|02.05.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, travels together with the Permanent Secretary for Finance, Godfrey Gaoseb, to Abidjan (Côte dIvoire). There they will conclude a soft loan agreement for R 30 million with the African Development Bank (ADB). The funds will be used for the construction of the Trans Kalahari Highway from Gobabis to Mamuno at the Botswana border.|
|07.05.||Klaus Dierks announces the discovery of two unregistered airfields (Judaea-Ost in the Uhlenhorst area und Voigtskub, west of Kalkrand), which are used for clandestine und unlicenced flights (smuggle of ostrich chicks).|
|09.05.||The Interessengemeinschaft Deutschsprechender für Namibia (IG) ceases to exist. The last board meeting is chaired by Klaus Becker.|
|12.05.||The purchase of a presidential jet, a French Falcon 900 B for R 80 million takes effect. Although the Ministry for Works, Transport and Communication is responsible for all official transport matters, the ministry is not involved in the decision making process to purchase the jet.|
|19.05.||The Cabinet approves the "White Paper on Transport Policy" which suggest measures to open the Namibian transport market for new operations. It has as it aim at making it easier for prospective operators to gain access into the transport market. It recommends an improved performance in the transport sector.|
|24.05.||In order to resolve the conflict around the disputed Kasikili Island in the Chobe River, President Sam Nujoma and his Botswana counterpart Ketumile Masire, in the presence of Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe as negotiator, meet in Kasane, Botswana. They agree to appoint a commission of experts which should investigate the legal and technical problems around the island. The results of this expert commission should be accepted as binding for both parties.|
|End May||Angola's President Eduardo dos Santos addresses the Namibian National Assembly. He emphasizing the necessity of peace and stability as guarantees for economic development and progress.|
|11.06.||The newly appointed Minister for Finance, Gerd Hanekom, tables the Budget for the Financial Year 1992/93. The budget makes provision for an expenditure of R 3 540 million against an expected revenue of R 2 980 million, a real increase of eight percent in comparison with the financial year 1991/92, although taxes are lowered. The expected deficit of R 567 million represents 7,7% of the total budget. R 347 million will be covered from credits. The Operational Budget utilises R 2 830 million. Nearly 25% are used by the education sector. A salary increase for teachers and medical nurses results in an expenditure of R 50 million. A drought relief scheme needs a further R 120 million. Capital projects to the tune of R 669 million (1991/92: R 554 million), an increase of 15% against 1991/92, are envisaged. Hanekom announces further the introduction of Namibias own currency, consisting of the Namibia Dollar and Cents for the end of 1993. The new currency will be equivalent to the SA Rand which remains legal tender in Namibia. Namibia continues to stay in the Southern African Common Monetary Area. The inflation rate raises to 20%.|
|28.06./02.07.||President Nujoma attends the OAU Summit Meeting in Dakar (Senegal).|
|05.07.||The first Chief Justice at the Supreme Court, Hans Berker, dies in Windhoek. Successor is South African judge, Ismael Mahomed, who is judge at the Namibian Supreme Court since 1991.|
|09.07.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, meets his Angolan counterpart, Gilberto G Mamedes, in Windhoek. The purpose is to implement the 1990 Agreement to rebuild the destroyed road from Oshikango at the border between Namibia and Angola to Lubango and Namibe (Namibe Corridor). During Angola's President José Eduardo dos Santos visit to Namibia in May, it was decided that Dierks and Mamedes have to steer the huge construction project.|
|16.07.||The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, commissions the works on the new surfaced road from Oshakati to Okahao. The contractor is Karibib Mining and Construction Company Limited. Simultaneously the building of the labour-based test section of the road from main road 111 to Onaanda commences.|
|31.07./07.08.||The Zimbabwean Vice-President Joshua Nkomo visits Namibia.|
|August||The commercialised Namibia Post (NamPost) and Telecom Namibia come into existence.|
|10./17.08.||The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) Summit Conference takes place in Windhoek. It is agreed to create a common market for SADCC, and subsequently SADCC is renamed into the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The Minister for Trade and Industry, Ben Amathila, declares that Namibia will remain a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU).|
|17.08.||Klaus Dierks, accompanied by the Deputy Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication, Tukondjelanee Elijah Nghihalua and the Technical Director of Telecom Namibia, Wessel van der Vyfer, visits India. He signs an Memorandum of Understanding with the Indian Deputy Minister of Communications, Rangayya Naidu, regarding technical cooperation in the field of telecommunications. He also finalises the delivery of Indian donor assistance of 45 trucks and busses to the Government of Namibia. The vehicles are handed over to the Namibian Government by the leaving Indian High Commissioner, Shiv Shankar Mukherjee, on 13.10.1992.|
|21.08.||While Namibia takes a firm stand on the validity of UN SC Resolution 432 that the territorial integrity and unity of Namibia must be assured through the reintegration of Walvis Bay into the territory, and that pending the attainment of this objective, SA must not use Walvis Bay in any manner prejudicial to Namibias viability of its economy, South Africa still insists on the colonial status-quo of the disputed enclave. In spite of this situation, a third round of talks between Namibia and South Africa with respect to the re-integration of Walvis Bay and the Atlantic offshore islands into the Republic of Namibia takes place in Pretoria. It is agreed that a Joint Administrative Authority of the disputed enclave should be established by the two countries (Nangolo Mbumba represents Namibia and Carl von Hirschberg represents South Africa). The two Namibian and South African representatives have power of decision for nearly all practical and infrastructural issues, except foreign affairs, defence and constitutional matters. In order to exercise some credible pressure on South Africa, in 1991 President Nujoma issued orders to the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, to develop plans for a new north coast port (Cape Cross as a port for general cargo and Möwe Bay as a fishing port), as well as a railway line to Cape Cross and a paved road to Möwe Bay. These "top secret plans" are "forgotten" by Dierks in his hotel room in Pretoria and play a humble role in the later re-integration of Walvis Bay on 28.02.1994.|
|31.08.||The Regional Councils Act, the Regional Authorities Act and the Electoral Act are promulgated by the National Assembly and create the basis for the establishment for the second house of Parliament, the National Council. The elections for the Regional Councils and Local Authorities are scheduled for 30.11. to 02.12.1992. The councillors are elected for five resp. six years. The National Council consists of two Regional Councillors for each of the 13 regions which were established by the Delimitation Commission, 1990. All voters in the local authorities have to elect their representatives, with the result that for the first time cities and towns like Windhoek got a majority "black" City Council and "black" majors.|
|End August||President Nujoma uses for the first time the new presidential jet for an official visit to Indonesia, China, North Korea and Malaysia.|
|01.09.||The University of Namibia is born. First Vice-Chancellor is Peter Katjavivi (until now SWAPO Member of the National Assembly).|
|27.10.||The German Airline Lufthansa takes up direct flights between Germany and Windhoek via Johannesburg (Boeing 747-400 "Baden-Württemberg"). The new air link is opened by Klaus Dierks and the Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany, Harald Ganns.|
|29.10.||In Pretoria it is agreed to improve the transport chains between South Africa, Namibia and Zambia (the Trans Caprivi Highway-Corridor), especially under the current drought condition in the region (the "Grain Bridge to Zambia"). The South African Minister of Transport, Piet Welgemoed, chairs a meeting with the Zambian Ministers for Energy, Transport and Communication, Andrew Kashita and for Agriculture, G Scott as well as the Namibian Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks.|
|End October||The conflict around the disputed Kasikili Island in the Chobe River escalates when planes of the Botswana Air Force violate Namibian air space.|
|01.11.||The long awaited Labour Act (Act No. 6 of 1992) is promulgated. It provides for a wide range of labour related matters such as labour disputes, labour conflict arrangements, working hours and leave. No provision for minimum wages is made (Minimum wages are introduced only in 2002).|
|End November||The drought catastrophe causes that some hundred Dama who originally came from Augeigas (present-day Daan Viljoen game reserve) and who were resettled against their will in Otjohorongo in 1956 return to Augeigas and camp in the road reserve of main road 52 from Windhoek to the Daan Viljoen game reserve. They demand the return of their ancestral land. Consequently the land issue becomes a hotly debated election topic.|
|30.11./02.12.||The elections for the Regional Councils and Local Authorities take place in the whole country. With more than 80%, the turn-out is very high. SWAPO gets the majority vote in the regional elections, with a majority of more than 70% in nine of the 13 regions. In the local elections SWAPO wins in 32 of 48 local authorities. The DTA makes headway in nine towns and the UDF gets the majority in two. In five local authorities the power is shared between SWAPO and the opposition parties.|
|03.12.||The South African border posts at
the Walvis Bay Enclave are removed and all border controls are terminated.
The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, announces that, after 18 months of intensive negotiations, funding for the realisation of the Trans Caprivi Highway is in place. Namibian public monetary resources of R 170 million fund the construction of the 150 km section between Takwasa and Divundu at the Okavango River. Donor agencies like the German Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) (Section from Divundu to a point 100 km east of the Okavango River (Bagani Bridge) and the section from Wenela at the Namibian-Zambian border at the Zambezi River and Ngoma at the Namibian-Botswana border at the Chobe River), the European Community (Section between a point 100 km east of the Bagani Bridge to Kongola at the Kwando River) and the African Development Bank (ADB) will ensure the completion of this ambitious project. Dierks further makes known that a road upgrading programme for the formerly neglected Ovamboland which was established in 1990 will be realised mainly by grant donor assistance from Germany (R 15 million) and Sweden. Belgian donor assistance will finance a digital telecommunication link between Grootfontein and Rundu as well as a new air traffic control centre at Windhoek. The German Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft will fund a research project on gravel and earth roads in Namibia. This project includes the evaluation of data on Namibian gravel and earth roads, the development of a central data bank and the establishment of an optimised maintenance algorithm for such roads. Namibia has the highest standard of gravel and earth roads in Africa and the existing knowledge base has to be analysed and cost and performance optimised systems for the blading, grading, re-gravelling and surfacing techniques for such roads have to be formulated.
The Trans Caprivi Highway, Section: Nyangana - Divundu, km 150
east of Rundu, View to the East, Kavango Region, December 2002
|23.12.||Botswana and Namibia sign a joint memorandum that ratifies the establishment of a commission of experts which should investigate the legal and technical problems around the Kasikili island.|
Trunk Road 4/2: Goageb - Aus: built 1992/93: Karas Region