|1850||James Morris hands over his
business to his nephew, Thomas Morris.
The price of copper begins to soar and various prospectors begin to explore the area for copper deposits. Aaron De Pass later establishes a mining company, the Pomona Mining Company. Jonker Afrikaner opens an informal copper mine at the Natas Mine and trades the ore at Walvis Bay.
Shikongo shIipinge (±1850-1902) follows the seventh Uukwaluudhi King, Uushona uEndjila. Against his enemies from other Ovambo kingdoms he builds a thorn fence (3 - 4 m high and 2 -3 wide) about a 100 km long from Iikokola at the Ongandjera border to the Ombalantu border. But this fence does not protect the Uukwaluudhi people because it is burnt down by Ongandjera warriors. Earlier Uukwaluudhi Kings cannot be dated. They are in a descending order: Niilenge ya Shipula; Shikwa shAmupindi (Kayambu); Natshilongo shIikombo; Kamongwa; Nakakwiila and Amukwa yAmunyela.
||||Oaseb seeks the support of Willem Swartbooi (!Huiseb #Haobemab) against Jonker Afrikaner, but Swartbooi refuses. The group leader Tseib splits during this time from the Kai||khaun and later forms the group of the Kharo-!oan in Keetmanshoop.|
|22.03.||Rhenish missionary Friedrich
Wilhelm Kolbe establishes a mission station at Okahandja, after Hahn's unsuccessful
attempt in 1844.
Rhenish Missionary Church in Okahandja: The Missionary Station
is established on 22.03.1850 by Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Kolbe: Otjozondjupa Region:
|25.04.||Manasse Tyiseseta is born in Otjimbingwe (from 1867 he lives in Omaruru). He rules from 25.11.1884 to 26.07.1898.|
|20.08.||British traveller and scientist Francis Galton arrives in Walvis Bay. His interpreter is the Omuherero Onesimus who later becomes a "petty chief" in Otjimbingwe.|
||Jonker Afrikaner attacks Okahandja (Chief Kahitjene and missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Kolbe) because he fears the loss of Orlam Afrikaner control. The Okahandja mission station is destroyed and Kolbe leaves Damaraland permanently.|
|13.09.||Missionary Samuel Hahn reports on the worthy road building activities by the Goliath Nama at the Brukkaros Mountain (Khoekhoegowab: Kaitsi !Gubeb).|
|17.10.||Against the wishes of Captain David
Frederiks of Bethany, the Goliath Nama (the groups elected headman being Paul
Goliath or #Hobexab (his predecessor was |Aiob ||Êi-gaosenmab or Dirk Isaak: no dates
could be traced), assisted by Christoph Tibot) move to !Autsawises from Gulbrandsdalen,
named by Hans-Christian Knudsen and situated east of Bethany. At !Autsawises a new mission
station of the Rhenish Missionary Society, named Berseba, is founded by Rhenish missionary
Samuel Hahn (until 30.04.1852). The Berseba Orlam are called "|Hai-|khauan".
This community is dependent on the Kai||khaun (also called "The Red Nation")
Chief ||Oaseb. From this time, more than 150 years, there is a power struggle between
the Goliath and Isaak clans of Berseba.
Berseba: founded by Rhenish Missionary Samuel Hahn: 17.10.1850:
the Church is built by Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Weber: 1857
|1851||Francis Galton arranges for a peace treaty between Jonker Afrikaner and the Ovaherero. Jonker Afrikaner, however, is still determined to prevent the establishment of any relations between European missionaries and Ovaherero chiefs independent of his control.|
|11.02.||Missionary Hans-Christian Knudsen is expelled and banished from Bethany by Captain David Christian Frederiks (or ||Naixab).|
|12.03.||Galton offers to arrange for a
peace treaty between the Ovaherero communities of Oove ua Muhoko Kahitjene, one of
Jonkers former allies, and Chief John Samuel Aron Mungunda from Otjombuindja in the
Ozongoto area, but Kahitjene declines the offer. In a subsequent skirmish between
Mungundas sons and Kahitjene, the latter is killed. The Ovaherero decide that the
Mungunda community should settle together with Tjamuahas son, Maharero (or
Kamaharero). Kahitjenes downfall can be directly attributed to his attempts to win
direct access to arms with the assistance of missionary Hahn. Maharero leaves Otjimbingwe
and returns to Tjamuahas place, Okahandja.
Missionary Kolbe completes first hymn book in the Otjiherero language.
||Galton and Charles John Andersson are the first Europeans to reach the Etosha Pan and the informal copper mines of Tsumeb. They proceed further north into Ovamboland.|
|07.07.||The Kololo King Sebitwane dies, shortly after meeting David Livingstone. He is followed by his son Sekeletu (1851 - 1863).|
|31.08.||Rhenish missionary Johann Georg Krönlein works at Berseba.|
|31.12.||Rhenish missionary Matthäus Gorth arrives at Walvis Bay and proceeds to Otjikango (Groß Barmen).|