|1859||Philippus Katjimune settles at
The ninth Uukwanyama King Haikukutu yaShinangola dies in Ovamboland. His successor is King Sefeni shaMukuyu (1859-1862).
The sixth Ondonga King Shipanga shAmukwiita is overthrown by his nephew Shikongo sha Kalulu (1859-1874), with military assistance from Jonker Afrikaner. Shikongo becomes new Ondonga King and Shipanga has to seek refuge with Uukwanyama King Sefeni shaMukuyu. Shikongo's royal court is in Omandongo in the Ondonga area.
|Early 1859||The Rhenish missionary Hermann
Heinrich Kreft commences the construction of a church in Bethany.
Bethany: First Rhenish Missionary Church: 26.06.1859: Karas
||Andersson, in search of the source of the Kunene River, reaches the Okavango River. He is probably the first to use the name "Okavango River".|
|01.04.||Johannes Rath loses his wife and four children in a marine disaster at Walvis Bay.|
|June||Carl Hugo Hahn returns again to Europe and returns in January 1864.|
|26.06.||Missionary Kreft consecrates the new church in Bethany. Chief David Christian Frederiks contributes financially.|
|1859-1860||Portuguese invasion efforts from Angola are
beaten back by Oshivambo-speaking people.
The new political constellation as it consolidates itself in the late 1850s can be described as follows: The chiefs ||Oaseb of the Kai||khaun, Amraal Lambert or #Gai-|nub of the Kai|khauan, Piet Koper !Gamab of the Fransman Nama or !Khara-khoen, Hendrik Henricks or !Nanib gaib #Arisemab of the ||Hawoben and Jacobus Boois from Bethany support Jonker Afrikaner, while Willem Swartbooi or !Huiseb #Haobemab from Rehoboth, the chiefs from Bethany and Berseba and later Kido Witbooi or #A-||êib from Gibeon, assisted by Chief Tseib from Keetmanshoop, represent the anti-Jonker coalition.
The Rhenish missionaries greatly add to these polarisations of different Namibian groups. The intent is to destroy Jonkers nascent state structures in order to weaken any local political power that might resist the missionaries objectives and later colonial annexation. Jonkers slogan: "Africa to Africans, but Namaland and Hereroland to us" is a challenge which is not acceptable to the missionaries.
|1860||Increasingly economic power slips
out of the hands of the territorys leaders and their councils and passes into the
hands of European traders and missionaries. A new form of European colonial domination is
unofficially introduced by the missionary-trader alliance long before the official
colonial annexation takes place. This development paves the way for the overthrow of
Jonker Afrikaners sovereignty in the 1860s.
Andersson establishes Otjimbingwe which has had a mission station since 1849 as a trade centre after buying the local assets of the Walfish Bay Mining Company. This new Otjimbingwe-based trading network represents the greatest threat ever to the Orlam Afrikaners control of Hereroland.
Lung sickness breaks out among cattle in the early 1860s. In 1860 the first isolated cases of the disease are reported and trade with cattle slowly begins to suffer. Jonker and other Namibian chiefs are reluctant to grant traders, especially Andersson, the right to allow contaminated cattle to pass through areas on their way to the Cape markets. Faced with the chiefs determination to protect their own pastures and to contain the spread of the disease, Andersson reacts in two ways: No longer considering inoculation, he begins to expand support structures for his trade by purchasing two field guns in the Cape in 1860/61, and to start engaging, training and arming groups of military mercenaries stationed at Otjimbingwe.
David Radford is the first European to settle in Angra Pequeña.
David Livingstone visits for the last time the Chobe River in the area which later becomes the Caprivi Strip. His efforts to establish a mission station there fail again.
Ovaherero leader Ua Tjirue Tjamuaha undertakes a journey to Kaokoland to unite the Ovaherero against Jonker Afrikaner.
After the death of the eleventh Uukwambi King Tshikesho becomes firstly Tshikongo and in the same year Nuyoma wIipumbu (1860-1862) the thirteenth king of the Uukwambi area in Ovamboland. Due to the frequent wars with the Ongandjera, the Uukwambi area is repeatedly devastated. Capital during this time is Iino.
|27.02.||Johannes Rath completes the German-Otjiherero dictionary.|
Omandongo, south of Onayena is the Residence of Ondonga King Shikongo sha Kalulu