||James Chapman and Thomas Baines
cross southern Africa, setting out from Walvis Bay and travelling via Lake Ngami to end up
at the Victoria Falls.
Jonker Afrikaner stations Piet Gertse at Otjimbingwe to keep him informed on European activities there
|Beginning 1861||Jonker Afrikaner again attacks Ovamboland and Kaokoland.|
|13.04.||Johannes Rath leaves Otjimbingwe together with Barnabas Hörnemann to return to Wuppertal in the Cape.|
|21.06.||Great Britain takes possession of the Atlantic offshore island Ichaboe.|
|12.08.||High Commissioner Smythe annexes per decree the other 11 Atlantic offshore islands (Hollamsbird, Mercury, Seal, Penguin, Halifax, Possession, Albatross Rock, Pomona, Plum Pudding, Sinclair and Long Island) for Great Britain.|
|18.08.||Jonker Afrikaner dies in
Okahandja. He is buried at the Orlam Afrikaner settlement near the Rhenish missionary
Grave of Jonker Afrikaner, who died on 18.08.1861 in Okahandja:
The Grave is in the Vicinity of the Orlam Afrikaner Stettlement near the Rhenish
Missionary Station: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
From the time of the establishment of Windhoek around 1840 until his death, he and his Raad (Council) play a prominent role in Nama- and Damaraland, thereby creating a powerful, if rudimentary, sovereign state. His son Christian becomes his successor. Jonker Afrikaners wife, Beetje Afrikaner, becomes politically active after Jonkers death.
|December||Tjamuaha dies. His grave is
situated near the Ovaherero settlement at Okahandja. Shortly after his death, his son
Maharero moves to Otjimbingwe.
Access to the Ovaherero Graves of the Maharero Dynasty in
Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Ovaherero Graves of the Maharero Dynasty in Okahandja (The Date
of Death of Tjamuaha on the Tombstone (1859) is wrong, during 1859/60 Tjamuaha was still
on an Expedition Trip to the Kaokoveld): Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
|1862||The fourteenth King Iipumbu ya
Nangaku (1862-1863) of the Uukwambi area in Ovamboland follows King Nuyoma wIipumbu. He
founds his capital at Okashangu.
The Ondonga King Shikongo attacks the Ongandjera area, again with military assistance from Jonker Afrikaner. The fifteenth Ongandjera king Amunyela gwa Tshaningwa is killed. After that, the Ongandjera kingdom begins to decline economically and politically. Amunyela is succeeded for a short while by King Ekandjo lya Kadhila. He is overthrown by the later Queen Nakashwa. The same year sees the overthrow of Queen Nakashwa by the eighteenth Ongandjera King Tsheya tshUutshona (1862-1878).
The former Ondonga King Shipanga tries to return to Ondonga and to overthrow Shikongo. He is killed at Onayena.
King Sefeni shaMukuyu dies in Ovamboland. He is followed by the eleventh Uukwanyama King Mweshipandeka sha Shaningika (1862-1882). During his reign the Uukwanyama kingdom experiences a political and economical upswing. He founds the capital Ondjiva.