1868
The Rhenish Missionary Society asks for Prussian (North German Federation) protection.
Trader and hunter Robert Lewis manages the Ebony Mine.
Jan./Feb. Maharero moves from Otjimbingwe via Otjikango to Okahandja.
May Iverson, a Danish trader and agent for Hahn, is killed at Walvis Bay by an Orlam Afrikaner commando.
07.06. European settlers in Otjimbingwe sign a petition addressed to the Cape Governor, Philip Wodehouse, requesting British protection against the Nama/Orlam communities’ efforts to gain independence, after Jan Jonker Afrikaner had urged that all Europeans should leave the country (letter to Hahn: May 1868). The petition is signed by Palgrave who had already visited Ovamboland in 1866 (before missionary Hahn’s visit).
09.10.
British Commissioner Piers visits Bethany to intervene in the various Namaland conflicts. Kido Witbooi does not participate in these.
05.11. In the battle of Otjomukaru, south of Okahandja, Orlam Afrikaners are crushingly defeated.
16.11. Baster (!Gora) people under leadership of Hermanus van Wyk and accompanied by Rhenish missionary Johann Christian Friedrich Heidmann cross the Oranje River from Pella and De Tuin and move into the territory. Claas Swart settles in Grootfontein (in the south). Other Baster communities settle in Keetmanshoop, in Mier and Haas in South Africa, and in Chamis.
12.12. The Deutsche Missions-Handelsaktiengesellschaft is established by the Rhenish Missionary Society in Barmen, Germany. The company opposes the importation of arms and alcoholic beverages into the territory but trades in skins and cattle in return for cheap goods from Germany. Trader C Conrath manages the business of the company. There is considerable conflict between him and Hahn. In the end this leads to Hahn’s resignation from the Rhenish Missionary Society (05.03.1872).
1869
Carl Hugo Hahn becomes the Superintendent of the Rhenish Missionary Society in South Africa.
Rhenish missionary Brincker finally returns to Otjimbingwe (until 1879) and rebuilds the mission station.
Kamuzandu, who assisted Hahn in his linguistic work, dies.
09.01.

The Governor of the Cape Colony tries to persuade the chiefs of Bethany and Berseba to support European advances in Great Namaqualand. Jacobus Boois of Bethany responds by saying that the Europeans, and especially Hahn, have interfered in the affairs of the inhabitants of the territory and are threatening their independence and freedom.
14.02. At Carl Hugo Hahn’s request, the first Finnish missionaries arrive in the territory to exteend missionary work into Ovamboland (there are thousands of needy heathens in Ovamboland). Among them are Martti Rautanen (later called Nakambale (the man with a helmet) in the Ondonga area), Botolf Bernhard Bj÷rklund, Pietari Kurvinen, Karl Leonhard Tolonen, Erkki Juntunen and Karl August Weikkolin. Some of them travel first to Otjimbingwe to learn the Otjiherero language.
07.03. The Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Wilhelm Christian (#Nao Xab Xau-||˘mab), is inaugurated. His predecessors cannot be dated. Jacobus Christian (Xau-||ob !Nanxamab), Wilhelm’s predecessor is the successor of Abraham Christian(!Nau Xab |Gari Numab), successor of Jan Christian (|Gariműb), successor of |O-bib, successor of Amaxab, successor of ||Nanib.
15.04. Paul Goliath of Berseba dies.
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