1889 The German administration issues a new mining ordinance which vests all mining rights in the State, and to this day all mining legislation is based on that principle.
15.01. The member of the German Reichstag, Bamberger, proposes giving up the colony.
10.03. Hendrik Witbooi erects his headquarters at Hornkranz near the Gamsberg.
Rhenish missionaries report that Hornkranz is a well organised settlement with regular church services (under Klein-Hendrik Witbooi).
13.03. Missionary Brincker asks Bismarck to intervene militarily in the colony, otherwise it will be lost to the British Cape Colony.
April !Hoëb ||Oasmab (also named Fritz Lazarus ||Oaseb) again joins Hendrik Witbooi. Manasse !Noreseb from the Kai||khaun of Hoachanas seeks the protection of the Ovaherero Chief Maharero and settles at Seeis.
Bismarck, who has even thought of abandoning the colony, is finally persuaded to provide military backing for the colony, and 21 soldiers under Curt von Francois subsequently arrive in Walvis Bay. One of Von Francois’ first activities is to visit Maharero at Okahandja.
Bismarck’s son, Herbert (then Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Berlin), goes to England and tries without success to exchange SWA for the island Heligoland. In a letter to his father he says: "I think the deal would be very advantageous to us, and enormously popular in Germany. Our SWA Company is stagnant, bankrupt and helpless. We are in a mess with the Commissioner (Göring) who has had to flee to the English in Walvis Bay".
10.08. The battle of Tsaobis is fought between Hendrik Witbooi and Orlam Afrikaners under Jan Jonker Afrikaner. Jan Jonker is killed by his son, Phanuel Afrikaner, because Phanuel opposes peace negotiations with Witbooi. The Orlam Afrikaners’ polity ceases to exist.
18.08. Samuel Maharero writes to Von Francois: "If you did not come with warlike intentions, then I ask you once again to pay heed to what I say, do not needlessly spend your money but rather go home. If you do not want to listen to my words then please declare so openly and tell me directly that you are at war with us."
07.10. The first military fortress, "Wilhelmsfeste" near Tsaobis, is founded by Von Francois. Maharero objects to the establishment of this colonial fortress in Hereroland.
A transport with arms and ammunition organised by the trader Robert Lewis for Maharero is stopped in Tsaobis. In consequence of this Lewis is expelled from the colony.
10.10. A sale of land treaty is agreed between the Kharaskhoma-Syndicate and the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-Pnun), Wilhelm Christian. This treaty includes all mining rights. With British capital, Theophilus Hahn from the Kharaskhoma-Syndicate begins some mining activities in the southeast of the territory. An official agreement between the Kharaskhoma-Syndicate and the German Imperial Government is concluded on 31.10.1892.

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The Cemetery in Warmbad: With a Grave reflecting the History of the Kharaskhoma Syndicate of the South
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

End 1880s The first record of the discovery of semi-precious stones concerns topaz found at the Kleine Spitzkoppe. Later the beryl varieties, aquamarine and heliodor, are recovered from the Rössing pegmatites and pegmatites in the vicinity of Karibib. Heliodor from the Hoffnungsstrahl pegmatite near Rössing are used in a pendant for Empress Auguste Victoria from Germany. Bright speckled, deep-blue dumortierite is mined on farm Etemba in the Erongo Mountains.
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