1895 A protection treaty is signed between Friedrich von Lindequist, as Leutwein’s representative, and the Zesfontein Topnaar in the Kaokoveld.
The Rhenish Missionary Society re-establishes a mission station at Gobabis.
The Cape Cross Mine railway line is built by the Damaraland Guano Company Ltd. This is the first railway line to be built in the country. The first locomotive, "Prince Edward", is a saddle-tank locomotive with a 0-4-0 wheel arrangement.
Edmund Troost continues to operate the steam tractor (later called "Martin Luther"), which does surprisingly well on hard ground until it blows a tube and is duly abandoned in 1896.
King Kambonde kaMpingana (1884-1909) of the Ondonga area sends a message, assisted by Finnish missionary Martti Rautanen, to this effect: "[I] hope to never see the German Governor in [my] life because the Germans are coming to rule."
The Herero-Orlams who left the territory in the 1840s return to Warmbad. They get permission from Bondelswarts Chief Wilhelm Christian to settle there. The permission is granted on two conditions, firstly to dig wells to obtain water (they dug the first well at Kalkfontein, later Karasburg) and secondly to deliver transport services to the Bondelswarts and also to the Germans. Later (1908) they move under Chief Elias Tjikuirire (later named: Stephanus; Mbaeva is later named Biwa and Kakahito becomes Apollus) to Vaalgras/ Koichas, north-east of Keetmanshoop.
Manasse !Noreseb from the Kai||khaun returns to Hoachanas.
In Otjimbingwe forestry is stimulated by the planting of trees.

Leutwein leads a "punitive expedition" in alliance with Hendrik Witbooi against the Khauas and Fransman Nama and later the Bondelswarts in the south, which leads to the defeat of all these groups. The expedition against the Khauas Nama was provoked by a German patrol (under the command of Aais station commander, Bohr) which had killed three unarmed Khauas Nama at Aais (13.09.1894).

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German War Cemetry at Koës: Reflecting the Crushing of various Nama Uprisings during 1895 in the Kalahari Desert
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

10.01. Von Lindequist negotiates between the Germans and the Ovambanderu headmen Nikodemus Kavikunua, Kahimemua Nguvauva, Kanangati Hoveka, Kayata and Baratyio for a compromise on the border question.
02.02. Leutwein exhorts Kavikunua and Kahimemua to keep the peace.
Further Schutztruppe reinforcements arrive in Swakopmund on the vessel "Jeanette Woermann".
16.04. Postal Secretary Alfred Sachs becomes the first Postmaster in Windhoek.
18.05. Leutwein, Samuel Maharero and Riarua meet Kavikunua and Kahimemua at Otjinauanaua. An agreement is reached which eventually leads to the downfall of Nikodemus and Kahimemua.
Hendrik Witbooi requests the Rhenish Missionary Society to send a new missionary to Gibeon. Missionary Friedrich Schröder serves the Gibeon congregation from 1896 to 1899. His successor is missionary Otto Simon (1899 to 1902). He is succeeded by missionary Spellmeyer as from 1903.
22.05. The German penal code becomes law in the colony – for indigenes as well.
30.05. A post office is opened in Swakopmund.
15.06. Leutwein concludes a treaty with Kavikunua which enforces harsh border control between Ovambanderu and German settler areas. Kavikunua seeks a closer relationship with Samuel Maharero, thus breaking with Kahimemua. Nikodemus’ claim to Gobabis is, however, rejected. Instead of this the Germans establish a garrison at Gobabis and a military post at Olifantskloof, ostensibly to control the trade to and from the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
New punitive measures are announced for those Ovaherero and Ovambanderu who transgress the southern border between Hereroland and the German settler areas.
The postmark "Otyimbingue" becomes "Otjimbingue".
01.08. A post office is opened in Omaruru.
12.08. A post office is opened in Okahandja.
27.08. Leutwein concludes a treaty with Samuel Maharero at Grootfontein for the establishment of the northern border of Hereroland.
Boers are increasingly willing to accept German citizenship.
01.10. A post office is opened at Gibeon.
10.10. A post office is opened at Cape Cross.
15.10. .A post office is opened at Keetmanshoop.
12.11. A post office is opened at Lüderitz.
24.11. Carl Hugo Hahn dies in Paarl (Cape Colony).

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Carl Hugo Hahn's Grave at Paarl at the St. Petri Cemetery in the Cape Colony

Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

End 1895 Hendrik Witbooi escapes to Rietfontein in British territory because he distrusts the Germans, especially Major Mueller, new Deputy Commander of the German troops. While in South Africa, Witbooi thanks some newspapers for their support during his struggle against German colonialism.
Ovamboland King Kambonde kaMpingana of the Ondonga reports that a number of Ovaherero have come to see him, complaining that Samuel Maharero had become the servant of Leutwein. In line with this, Rhenish missionaries report that a large number of Ovaherero no longer stay in the mission stations out of fear of new colonial repressions.
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