1896 2  025 "whites" (1 500 of them German) live in SWA (1894: 1 343; 1898: 2 400 and 1900: 3.383). Windhoek has 180 "white" civilian inhabitants and approx. 600 soldiers. The second phase of German colonialism begins.
A bi-monthly shipping service by the Woermann Line is established at Swakopmund (as from 1899 a monthly service).
Military stations are erected at Husab, Ururas, Grootfontein and Outjo.
Ox-wagon roads are upgraded between Groß Barmen and Otjiseva, Okahandja and Otjosazu, and Keetmanshoop and Lüderitz.
Karl Dove warns that due to the loss of control and ownership of their traditional land by German settlers, the Ovaherero will have no option but to resist colonial efforts by force and to fight for their survival.

Namibia_Otjozondjupa_GrootfonteinFort_1.JPG (77675 bytes)Namibia_Otjozondjupa_GrootfonteinFort_2.JPG (61717 bytes)Namibia_Otjozondjupa_GrootfonteinFort_3.JPG (100529 bytes)

The "Old German Fort" in Grootfontein: Built between 1896 and 1900: Otjozondjupa Region: May 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

02.01. A post office is opened at Warmbad.
20.01. The first German Evangelical congregation is established in Windhoek (Reverend Heinrich Siebe). The size of the parish grows to 778 members until 1904.
22.01. Ovaherero and Germans meet in Okahandja to discuss the worsening border issue.
30.01. A post office is opened at Uhabis.
March to May Ovambanderu and Khauas Nama, led by Eduard Lambert, stage uprisings against German authority. Within a month the uprising indigenes are defeated in the battles of Gobabis (in which Lieutenant Otto Lampe of Gobabis and Eduard Lambert are killed) and Namdas ( Siegfeld). The Germans are supported by Hendrik Witbooi.
April A confrontation relating to the treatment of Namibian indigenes ensues between Leutwein and Rhenish missionary Viehe. Leutwein expresses that "if a Negro has done wrong, forceful action is of more use than too much mildness."
Leutwein issues a proclamation at Kowas where, in agreement with Samuel Maharero, he dismisses Kavikunua and Kahimemua from their positions as chiefs.
17.04. Riarua and Tjetjo turn their backs on Kavikunua and Kahimemua and support the protection treaty with the Germans. They are supported by Hendrik Witbooi.
01.05. The Windhoek Post Office becomes the main post office in the colony.

The Ovambanderu are defeated in the battle of Otjunda (Sturmfeld). Kahimemua surrenders to the Germans. Kavikunua, however, does not participate in the battles of Gobabis and Otjunda. Kahimemua sends Ovambanderu to Ngamiland (present-day Botswana) under the leadership of his son, Hiatuvao Nguvauva, grandfather of the later Ovambanderu Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II. This is the first wave of Ovaherero to flee to present-day Botswana.
Some Ovaherero escape into the Northeast of the territory. They settle in the area of Karakuwisa. There the Ovaherero are involved in violent clashes with local San groups.
The Khauas Nama cease to exist as a political entity. All surviving Khauas Nama are taken to Windhoek where they are placed in a concentration camp and are used as forced labour by the German authorities. Karl Dove writes in the Deutsche Kolonialzeitung: "It is to be hoped that the Imperial Governor will not be prevented by the sentimental humanitarianism of certain quarters from sending all the Khauas falling into his hands to the gallows ... ".
Nikodemus Kavikunua and Kahimemua Nguvauva from the Ovambanderu are executed after a court-martial trial in Okahandja. Kanangati Hoveka dies shortly after the executions. His successor is Nikanor Hoveka (born araound 1875).

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Grave of Nikodemus Kavikunua in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

26.06. Kariko is arrested, found guilty of high treason and sentenced to jail. Due to Manasse Tyieseta’s intervention, his life is spared and he is later banished to Erahui. In 1897 he escapes to Walvis Bay.
Further Schutztruppe reinforcements arrive in Swakopmund on the vessel "Adolf Woermann". Among the soldiers is Erich Victor Carl August Franke.
October Roman Catholic missionary work officially begins in Windhoek with the government appointment of the fathers Bernhard Herrmann and Josef Filliung (arrival at Swakopmund on 08.12.1896). Both are appointed as priests for "white" settlers and soldiers only. The subsequent mission work in the northern part of SWA is controlled by the Congregation of the Oblates of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, and in the southern part by the Congregation of the Oblates of St Francis de Sales.
15.10. A treaty between the DKGSWA (12.11.1894) and Paul Frederiks of Bethany is confirmed, which declares that the Bethany Nama now recognise the "German mile" as binding.
01.12. A Customs Proclamation is enacted.
04.12. A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Windhoek.
14.12. A post office is opened at Rehoboth.
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