3. THE PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD: THE MISSIONARIES

3.1 THE MISSIONARIES ARRIVE IN THE TERRITORY: 1805-1840

1800 Philippus Katjimune, a Omuherero by birth, is born in Namaland.
Several Dama groups with various local identities and different leadership structures live peacefully together with the Ovaherero. These communities are widespread across the country and at least twelve groups can be identified: the |Khomani-daman from the Khomas Hochland (Khoekhoegowab language (Nama/Dama): |Khomas), the Auas Mountains (|Auas) and the Eros Mountains (#Eros); the *Gowanin between Rehoboth and Hoachanas; the Tsao-xou-daman in the Swakop valley; the !Oe-gan in the Erongo Mountains (Khoekhoegowab: !Oe#ga Mountains); the !Omen from the Waterberg: (Khoekhoegowab: !Hob Mountains) and at the Omaruru River; the Aro-daman from the Waterberg; the Animin from Okahandja; the Oumin, east of the Waterberg; the *Geio-daman from Outjo (Khoekhoegowab: Tsuob); the Aobe-5ain from Omaruru; the Dunas-daman from the Brandberg; the Ao-guwun from Zesfontein and the Gobabis-Dama (*Gopani).
The leader of the Kai||khaun (also called "The Red Nation"), !Gaob |Hanamab dies at Hoachanas (!Hoaxa!ns), the Kai||khaun headquarters or at the Koaeib River (present-day Olifant’s River (#Khoa-aib River)). His successor is Gamb !Gaomab.
1805
February
The London Missionary Society establishes itself in Blydeverwacht (Blyde Uitkomst), represented by the brothers Abraham and Christian Albrecht who are the first missionaries to come to the territory.
October The brothers Albrecht move to Warmbad and live there until 1810/1811, when they are compelled to evacuate the mission station on account of an impending attack by the Orlam Afrikaners. Abraham Albrecht reports about the Nama communities of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun)(the first four mythological group leaders are !Hb, |Nanub, |Aib and #Oab) and the Veldschoendrager (||Hawoben). The brothers Albrecht are followed by Jan Magerman (1810 to January 1811) and Johann Leonhard Ebner (1812-1819 (?)). Right from the beginning missionaries are the main suppliers of guns and ammunition to local communities.
1806 The first mission station is erected in Warmbad by the brothers Albrecht ( first bricks made on 03.02.1806).
1811 The Warmbad mission station is destroyed by the Orlam Afrikaners under Jager and Titus Afrikaner.
The eighth Uukwanyama King Haimbili yaHaufiku (1811-1858) (Omukwaniilwa in the Oshivambo language) follows King Hamangulu yaNahambo in Ovamboland. He strengthens his kingdom by waging wars against neighbouring territories. His capital is Onehula.
1812
25.10
Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt is born at Blasheim in Germany.

Namibia_Erongo_Otjimbingwe-Kleinschmidt_1.jpg (108948 bytes)Namibia_Erongo_Otjimbingwe-Kleinschmidt_2.jpg (92286 bytes)

The Graves of the Rhenish Missionary Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt and his Wife Hanna, ne Schmelen at Otjimbingwe
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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