1920 Vita Tom decides to return from Ongongo at the Hoarusib River and to settle permanently at Otjiyandjasemo.
The German company Afrika-Marmor-Kolonialgesellschaft (Africa Marble Colonial Company) loses its mining rights in Karibib, which are transferred into South African hands.
The salt production in the Panther Beacon Pan and other pans along the Atlantic coast is continued. In the next decades (until around 1950) production rises continuously but practically all the salt is consumed locally, mainly as cattle feed.
Some fluorspar is produced at Okorusu north of Otjiwarongo.
KR Thomas becomes Magistrate and Chairman of the Village Management Board in Walvis Bay (until 16.03.1931).
10.01. The League of Nations transfers the C-Mandate (C-Mandate means that the Territory is to be administered under the laws of the mandatory power) for SWA to the Union of South Africa (Act 49 of 1919) and gives SA the right to govern the territory through a Governor-General (as from 01.01.1921). In terms of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, the "well-being and development" of the indigenous people forms a " sacred trust of civilisation". It soon becomes apparent, however, that the interests of the local "white" minority and those of South Africa determine policy in Namibia. This is the root of all conflicts for the next seventy years.The Public Service of South West Africa is integrated with that of South Africa.
The Union Land Settlement Act of 1912 is made applicable to SWA.
Roman-Dutch Law is introduced. Normal civil and criminal courts are built up, consisting of magistrates courts with inferior jurisdiction and a High Court with unlimited jurisdiction.
Proclamation No. 25 of 1920 regulates vagrancy in SWA.
The Eastern Caprivi Strip is administered from Kasane while the western part is administered by the Magistrate in Maun, both in the Bechuanaland protectorate (until 31.08.1929).
The South Africans ask for the resignation of Hendrik Sneeuwe as Bondelswart Chief, due to some corruption practices. Timotheus Beukes is appointed in his place. This is not accepted by the Bondelswarts. They still want Jakobus Christian as their leader.
01.04. The SWA Administration’s Advisory Council calls for administrative control over German private schools. This leads to a protest by the Landesverband der deutschen Schulvereine (established on 14.01.1920), which is strongly supported by the Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper in Windhoek.
May The German section of the Zuid-West Vereniging opposes the pro-Union sections and the incorporation of SWA into the Union of South Africa, and opts for own SWA politics and German as a language medium in schools. The German members begin to dissociate themselves from the Vereniging.
30.06. A meeting of a South Africa- Portugal border commission is held in Ruacana with a view to reaching agreement on the Kunene border, but no agreement is reached until 1934.
20.07. Frederick Maharero, oldest son of Samuel Maharero, is allowed to visit SWA. Missionaries report that Maharero is collecting money from his father’s followers, so that a farm can be bought for Samuel Maharero. During the trip he appoints, on behalf of his father, Hosea Kutako as acting paramount chief of the Ovaherero. During this time the Truppenspieler organisation green flag of the Ovambanderu is created.
01.09. SA Prime Minister Jan Christian Smuts visits SWA. Smuts rejects German demands (Robert Otto Karl Theodor Matthiesen) for cultural and political autonomy. The German community responds that they are prepared to become SA citizens provided that they are guaranteed relative political autonomy under the sovereignty of the League of Nations. The issue of incorporation into SA remains a major line of cleavage in white politics.
The Ovaherero submit a petition to Smuts and demand that the German missionaries be removed because they have betrayed the Ovaherero nation from the Ovaherero-German War of 1904 to 1906 onwards.
Due to their hostile attitudes towards the new administration, four German missionaries are ordered to leave the territory, among them Heinrich Vedder, Johannes Olpp, Mr. Hasenkamp and Hermann Gehlmann. The latter is, however, allowed to stay but is prohibited from continuing his work as missionary in Ovamboland, thus ending the work of the Rhenish Mission in this part of the country. The Finnish mission obtains the permission to continue the work of the Rhenish Missionary Society in the Uukwanyama area. The Finnish missionaries choose Engela as their headquarters in this area. Rhenish missionary Wilhelm Eich, head of the Herero Mission, later asks SA Prime Minister Jan Christian Smuts to allow the return of the three missionaries. This request is granted in February 1921.
October Gysbert Reitz Hofmeyr is appointed as the first Administrator for SWA.
Late1920 The Industrial and Commercial Workers Union (ICU) is based in urban centres such as Lüderitz, Keetmanshoop and possibly also Windhoek and Walvis Bay, but fails to exert much influence since contract labourers are not involved. The roots of the ICU are in Cape Town (President: Clements Kadalie). The ICU (SWA branches) dissolves in 1923.
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