ENDNOTES

[1] Schall, A. and Von Solms, C.L.: The Availability of Naturally Occurring Building Materials in SWA, Windhoek, 1983. See Appendix Map
[2] Schall and von Solms: Map of Namibia with naturally occurring building materials: Appendix Map
[3] Schall and von Solms: Map of Namibia with naturally occurring building materials: Appendix Map
[4] This can be illustrated by the following examples: If crushed rock is required between Otavi and Grootfontein for example, the dolomite occurrences are recorded at 4 different sites but all under code 46, and if loose formation rock is required between Outjo and Okaukuejo reference to code 60 will indicate that there are more than just the one site indicated on the map.
[5] South West Africa/Namibia: Geological Map, 1980, 1:1.000.000, Geological Survey of the Republic of South Africa and South West Africa/Namibia
[6] Dierks, Klaus: Technical Aspects for Appropriate Low-Volume Roads in Namibia, Ph.-D.-thesis, Berlin, 1992
[7] Brink, A.B.A.: Engineering Geology of Southern Africa: Volume 2: Rocks of 2000 to 300 Millions Years in Age, Building Publications Pretoria, 1981, p.57-80 op cit
[8] Geological Survey of SWA/Namibia: The Geology of South West Africa - Namibia, 1982
[9] Gravel road test sections to establish many physical road building properties as optimum maintenance qualities, gravel loss, riding qualities, dust problems, stone problems, potholes and cracking, loose material, slipperiness, corrugations etc have been constructed inter alia on main road 49 from Windhoek to the Gamsberg.
[10] Numerous discussions with C.L.von Solms, Chief Technician at the Materials Section of the former Directorate: Planning: Department of Transport: Namibia. I am deeply indebted to Mr. von Solms for the invaluable experience regarding roads materials I have gained from him, not only in 1985/87 but all the time since 1965.
[11] Brink, A.B.A.: Engineering Geology of Southern Africa: Volume 3: The Karoo Sequence, Building Publications Pretoria, 1983, p.33-44; 57-69; 73-83; 151-159 and 177-199 op cit.
[12] Roswell, D.M. and De Swardt, A.M.J.: Diagenesis in Cape and Karoo Sediments and its Bearing on their Hydrocarbon Potential: Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, 1979 Vol.79, p.81-153
[13] Johnson, M.R.: Stratigraphy and Sedimentology of the Cape and Karoo Sequence in the Eastern Cape Province: Ph.D.-Thesis: Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 1976
[14] Lundegard, P.D. and Samuels, N.D.: Field Classification of Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol.50, No.3, 1980, p.781-786
[15] Ruppel, G. was the contracts engineer during the construction of trunk road 1/1 from Vioolsdrift to Grünau during 1969/70. He proposed the use of fresh dolerite ex borrow pit: Code 2 on Ann.Table 1 for a crusher-run basecourse. The weathered dolerite overburden was used for the lower layers. Ruppel gave this and other information to the author 1968 and confirmed it in 1986.
[16] Brink, A.B.A.: Engineering Geology of Southern Africa: Volume 4: Post-Gondwana Deposits, Building Publications Pretoria, 1985, p.57-87; 174-183 and 286-307 op cit.
[17] Baillieul, T.A.: A Reconnaissance Survey of the Cover Sands in the Republic of Botswana: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol.2, No.45, 1978, p.494-503
[18] Mainwaring, P.: The Reconstruction of the Bulawayo to Victoria Falls Road: The Rhodesian Engineer, Vol.6, No.2, 1968, p.646-656
[19] Wolmarans, C.A.and Clifford, J.M.: An Evaluation of the CSIR Impact Roller: Proceeding of the 6th Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Durban, Vol.2, 1975, p.33-39
[20] Weston, P.J.: Compaction for Collapsing Sand Road Beds: Proceedings of the 7th Regional Conference for Africa on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Accra, Vol.1, 1980, p.342-354
[21] Schwartz, K.; Yates, J.R.C.; Tromp, B.E.: In Situ Compaction of Aeolian Kalahari Sands: Proceeding of the 10th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm, 1981, p.773-776
[22] Netterberg, F. and Weinert, H.H.: Towards a Unified Soil and Rock Classification System: Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, Vol.20, No.1, 1983, p.98-100
[23] Netterberg, F.and Caiger, J.H.A.: Behaviour of Calcretes as Flexible Pavement Materials in Southern Africa: Proceeding of the 11th Australian Road Research Board Conference, Melbourne, Vol.11, No.3, 1983, p.60-69
[24] Netterberg, F.: Self-Stabilisation of Road Bases: Fact or Fiction? Proceedings of the 6th Regional Conference for Africa on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Durban, Vol.2, 1975, p.115-119
[25] Netterberg, F.: Some Contrasts between Pedogenic and Traditional Materials, Proceedings of the 6th Regional Conference for Africa on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Durban, Vol.2, 1975, p.195-198
[26] Von Solms, C.L.: South West Africa Administration: Roads Department: Laboratory Section: Materials Manual, December 1975 as well as: Department of Transport: Materials Section: Algemene Materiale Spesifikasies vir Departementele Bitumen en Gruis Paaie, 1984 and: The Use of Natural and Lime Treated Pedogenic Gravels in Road Construction in South West Africa, Proceedings of the 6th Regional Conference for Africa on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Durban, Vol.2, 1975, p.200-210
[27] Netterberg, F.: Calcrete Wearing Course for Unpaved Roads: The Civil Engineer in South Africa, Vol.20, No.1, 1978, p.3-10
[28] Botswana Ministry of Works and Communications: Road Design Manual, Chief Roads Engineer, Gaborone, Botswana, 1982
[29] Caiger, J.H.A.: Aerial Photography and Aerial Reconnaissance applied to Gravel Road Construction in the Okavango Territory of South West Africa, The Civil Engineer in South Africa, Vol.10, No.5, 1968, p.99-106
[30] Netterberg, F. and Overby, C.: Rapid Material Reconnaissance for a Calcrete Road in Botswana, Proceedings of the 7th Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Accra, Vol.2, 1980, p.765-768
[31] Caiger, J.H.A.: The Search for Road Building Material in the Sands of Owambo, Proceedings of the 7th Regional Conference for Africa on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Accra, Vol.2, 1980, p.11-19
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