2.1  The Southern Transmission

Today Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand may still be called Buddhist countries. What is locally regarded as pure form of Therav‚da Buddhism has established itself strongly in all of them on a firm monastic basis with Pali as the canonical and liturgical language.

2.1.1 Sri Lanka

Buddhism is spread to Sri Lanka by the Indean Emperor Ashoka's Bikkhu son Mahinda: Singhalese Devanampiyatissa donated land for a Buddhist monastery near the capital Anur‚dhapura: Mah‚vihara. Mahinda's sister, Sanghamitta, founded an order of nuns.

During the reign of King Vattag‚mani (89-77-BC) the Pali scriptures were committed to writing on palm leaves. The scholar Buddhaghosa produced the important work Visuddhimagga (Path of Purification).

Sri Lanka didn't escape the schism in the next centuries. Some of its schools were influenced by Mah‚y‚na and tantric developments. Finally, a council held at Anur‚dhapura in 1160 finally settled the matter by surpressing all non-Therav‚da schools. Claiming to the current day to be the guardians of the longest surviving continuous tradition of Buddhism, the Therav‚da Buddhists of Sri Lanka are conscious of preserving the original teachings of the Buddha.

2.1.2 Burma

Buddhism started to settle in Burma - both HÓnay‚na and Mah‚y‚na - not before the 5th and 6th century AD. Tantrism also filtered down from the North and created one particularly scandulous sect, the Aris (arya: noble). An important event for the Therav‚da cause was the conversion of King Anawrahta of Pagan (1044-77).

Later, both Mah‚y‚na and HÓnay‚na flourished. The most famous Burmese pagoda is the gilded Shwedagon in Rangoon (14th century). Under the rule of King Dhammaceti of Pegu (1472-92) Therav‚da Buddhism became again the predominant form of Buddhism in Burma.

2.1.3 Thailand

Buddhism appeared first among the Mon people in the 3rd century BC by missionaries sent by Indian Emperor Ashoka. Later the Mon kingdom came under the sway of the Khmer of Kampuchea. There are traces of Mah‚y‚na and HÓnay‚na and Hinduism from this time.

 The Thai people from Chinese origin firstly encountered Buddhism from Chinese origin. By the 14th century Thailand as well as neighbouring Laos promoted the Sri Lankan brand of Therav‚da Buddhism. About 1361, Bikkhus including Mah‚sami Sanghar‚ja brought from Sri Lanka the "purified" form of Buddhism. Today Buddhism is still the state religion in Thailand (92% Buddhists).

2.1.4 Laos

During the early period Laos fell under the Khmer who probably introduced Buddhism and Brahminism. Later it became a province of Thailand and in consequence the Thai form of Sri Lankan Therav‚da Buddhism came into being.

2.1.5 Kampuchea

The Khmer people came under Indian cultural and religious influence and both Brahminism and Mah‚y‚na Buddhism were introduced. Around 9th century the Angkor culture (Angkor Wat) came into existence with Mah‚y‚na- Brahminical rituals. Around 13th century Therav‚da Buddhism develped under Thai influence.

2.1.6 Indonesia

Buddhism is pictured by the big largest Buddhist monument in Asia: Borobodur on Java island. Buddhism came with other Indean influences to the archipelago around the 5th century AD. The Therav‚da may have been favoured by the King of Stivijaya on Sumatra. But, Tantra became popular later on Java.

2.2 The Northern Transmission

A different thrust took Buddhism northwards from India into Central Asia, China, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea and Japan, as well as the kingdoms straddling the Himalayan chain: Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal and Ladakh. Both Therav‚da and Mah‚y‚na was disseminated in the process, but in the long run the Mah‚y‚na was to prevail.

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View on Thanggu in northern Sikkim, near to the Tibetan Border
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Thanggu-Gompa in the Year 2000
Photos: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

2.2.1 Ghand‚ra

Ghand‚ra with Purushapura (Peshawar), Kashmir and parts of Punjab were the springboard for Buddhism to Afghanistan, parts of Iran and Central Asia and further to the north and to the east. This area was one of the breeding grounds of Mah‚y‚na Buddhism. Buddhist missionaries are thought to be sent to Ghand‚ra not long after the Parinirv‚na of the Buddha but it only became firmly rooted under the rule of Emperor Ashoka, whose grandfather Chandragupta Maurya had extended imperial power in this direction. Ashoka himself was a viceroy at Taxila, a great centre of learning and trade that once flourished near Ghand‚ra.

After the decline of the Mauryas during the 2nd century BC, the Greco-Bactrians reasserted their powers and strengthened Buddhism (King Menandros/Milinda). Later the Greeks were suplanted by other peoples, including the Scythians and the Parthians. Afterwards came the Kush‚ns, a nomadic people originating from China. They built a great empire (from Chinese Turkestan into Afghanistan and northern India and as far as Lake Aral) and became later (after initial enemyship towards Buddhism) great supporters of Buddhism and built many monasteris and stŻpas. Thus between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD, Buddhism blossomed in this vital part of the world. Its greates patron was King Kanishka (c. 78-101 AD).

The Kush‚na dynasty was ousted by the Iranian Sassanids which were followers of Zarathustra but were tolerant towards Buddhism. Bamiyan with the largest Buddha statue in Afghanistan was created in this time. Buddhism had reached its apogee in the 5th century AD, thereafter it declined, hit by the depradations of the White Huns (Hephthalites), by general economic decline and a resurgence of Hinduism.

2.2.2 The Silk Road

The importance of the ancient communities along the different routes of the Silk Road (Parthians, Soghdians, Bactrians, KŻshans, Indians etc.) was not merely as staging posts on the route along which the Dharma was transmitted to China. A great Buddhist civilisation, now called Serindian or Sino-Indian, once flourished here, brought no doubt by Buddhist missionaries from the Central Asian springboard and consolidated by Kanishka's conquests in this area. It had its own art too, in which Greco-Roman and Iranian as well as Indian influences were strongly reflected, with traces of Chinese influences.

2.2.3 China Later Han Dynasty (25-220 AD) and Period of Disunity

Around the turn of the common era, Buddhism started to move into China from Central Asia via the Silk Road. Down to the end of of the Han period, during which China enjoyed a fairly stable centralised government, its progress among the native Chinese was fairly slow due to the deep-rooted xenophobia of the Chinese and due to the fact that Buddhism was in many cases inimical to the prevailing ideology, which derived from the sayings of the sage of Confucius (551-479 BC). Confucianism is a this-worldly creed and uphelds the ideal of a stable, harmonious social order in which every human unit plays its part according to hallowed custom. Thus, its devotees could only look with disfavour on any religion in that seemed to encourage the abandonment of all worldly ties in favour of the pursuit of a remote and vague spiritual idea. Also the fact that the Buddhist Sangha did not work but looked to other people to support them cut totally against established Chinese values.

Gradually, however, the barriers began to break down, aided by the Chinese mystical tradition of Taoism. Taoism is derived from the teachings of the mythical Yellow Emperor Huang ti (2698-2597 BC) but it was reformed by the great sage Lao Tzu, author of the classic Tao Te Ching. The Taoist were very un-Confucian in their dislike of the social world. They advocated a return to simplicity and harmony with nature. The Chinese found thus points of similarities between Taoism and Buddhism. The existence of a serious Buddhist community in Loyang emerged in 148 AD, when a Parthian missionary An Shih-kao made his appearance. A KŻshan named Lokaksema played also a role. They brought the Mah‚y‚na teachings to China. The early appearance of "meditation handbooks" showed a special Chinese brand of Buddhism.

The fall of the Han dynasty in 220 AD and the prevailing instable circumstances (Period of Disunity) created the right conditions for Buddhism with its profound teaching on suffering and impermanence to gain popularity and spread to other parts of China. Buddhism started to infiltrate court circles in many parts of the fragmented empire. Under the northern Wei dynasty, patronage of Buddhism soared and colossal schemes for building monasteries, temples, pagodas and stŻpas were initiated. Buddhism was also taken up by native rulers in the south, notably by the 6th century ruler Wu, who tried to develop into a kind of Chinese Ashoka by surpressing Taoism in favour of Buddhism. This resulted in the emergence of a native Sangha by the middle of the 3rd century when a Chinese version of the Vinaya (monastic code) was produced.

Due to worldly developments and the jealousy of Confucians and Taoists there was an anti-Buddhist backlash around 446 and 574.

Buddhism also gained ground on the popular level. Chinese Buddhism therefore developed into a two-tier system, with a sophisticated brand and a popular variety with a strong superstitious element in it. But, even on the height of Buddhism in China, there has always been Confucianism, Taoism and the folk religions.

The Silk Road remained the Buddhist activity route from Central Asia into China with many translations. The Indo-Scythian Tun-huang (late 3rd century) translated the Saddharma- PundarÓka SŻtra (White Lotus of the True Dharma SŻtra), a highly influential Mah‚y‚na scripture that was to become the basic text of the indiginous T'ien T'ai school. The other four most influential Mah‚y‚na SŻtras in China were: Prajn‚aramit‚, VimalakÓrti- nirdťsa, the SŻr‚ngama-sam‚dhi and the Sukh‚vati-vyŻha.

The VimalakÓrti-nirdťsa was re-translated by Kum‚ravija who was most influential in the north (Kucha, Karashar, Kansu, C'ang-an)(around 400 AD) in the spreading of Mah‚y‚na and M‚dhyamÓka teachings. Sui and T'ang Dynasties (581-907)

During the Sui And T'ang dynasties a fully fledged Chinese Buddhism reached its golden time. In particular, a number of highly developed schools emerged, nearly all of the Indian by origin but adapted to Chinese culture. These schools were subsequently transmitted to Korea and Japan.

The following are the principal schools:

Vinaya School (LŁ-tsung)

The principal text is Vinaya in four parts: translated by Buddhayashas and Chu Fo-nien. This strict monastic order school was founded by Tao-hsŁan (596-667)

Realistic School (ChŁ-she)

The principal text is the Abhidharma-kosha of Vasubhandu. It derived its inspiration from ideas by Vasubhandu, the brother of Asanga and a native from Purushapura (Peshawar) who, before his conversion to Mah‚y‚na, was an ordained member of the Sarastiv‚da (All-Things-exist), one of the 18 schools of the HÓnay‚na.

The Abhidharma-kosha was translated into Chinese by Param‚rtha (563-567) and later HsŁan-tsang. The school that arose in China eventually became an appendage of the Idealist School (Fa-hsiang).

The Three Treatises School (San-lun)

The principal text is the M‚dhyamika-sh‚stra and the Dv‚dashadv‚ra (Twelve Gates) of N‚g‚rjunja, also the Shata Sh‚stra (One hundred Verse Treaties) of Aryadeva. The school is based on the M‚dhy‚mika or "Middle Way" teachings of N‚g‚rjuna who sought to advance the perfect wisdom of absolute emptiness by the use of a "transcendental dialect" negating all views. Introduced by Kumarajiva, these teachings were refined by Chih-tsang (549-623) in the Chia-hsiang monastery. The school declined after the rise of the Idealist School (Fa-hsiang), but was later revived by the Indian master Suryaprabhasa (679).

The Idealist School (Fa-hsiang)

The principal text is the Vimsatik‚-k‚rik‚ or "Twenty Stanzas" and other texts by Vasubandhu and his followers. This is the Chinese development of the Indian Yog‚c‚ra school (founded by Vasubandhu and Asanga which propounded the Doctrine of citta-m‚tra (mind only)). Its great teacher in China was HsŁan-tsang (596-664). He studied in India at N‚land‚ Yog‚c‚ra philosophy under his teacher Sliabhandra before he returned to Ch'an-gan in 645.

The Mantra or Tantric School (Mi-tsung or Chen-yen)

The principal text is the Mah‚vairocana (Great Brilliance) SŻtra. This school is the Chinese manifestation of Tantra with its esoteric paraphernalia of yogas, mantras, mandalas, mudr‚s, dharanis, initations and secret doctrines. It was introduced from India during the T'ang dynasty by Subhakarasimha (637-735) who translated the Mah‚vairocana SŻtra into Chinese. In 720 Vajrabodhi (670-741) and later Amoghavajra (705-774) came from India in order to strengthen Tantra in China. The school flourished for less than a century and was finally supplanted by Lamaism. It was taken to Japan by Kukai, where it became known as Shingon.

The Avatamsaka or "Flower Adornment" School (Hua-yen)

The principal text is the Avatamsaka SŻtra. Although it emerged from India it developed fully in China and was later transmitted to Japan (Kengon). Avatamsaka is regarded as the ultimate teaching by Buddha. It can be described as a link between Yogc‚ra and Tantra (although it was not concerned with the attainment of liberation by magical manipulation but rather by contemplation and aesthetic appreciation).

The outstanding figure in the early history of Hua-yen is Fatsang (643-712/3) (third patriarch). Finally, when the general decline of Buddhism commenced in the 9th century, the Hua-yen school also went into eclipse.

The T'ien-t'ai or White Lotus School (Fa-hua)

The principal text is the Saddharma- PundarÓka SŻtra (White Lotus of the True Law). It was founded by Chih-i as a truely genuine Chinese development. The T'ien-t'ai differs from the Hua-yen in providing alternative classifications of Buddhist scriptures. The White Lotus SŻtra is thought to include the essence of all the other teachings. It was therefore the perfect mean that could ferry all men across the ocean of Sams‚ra to the far shore of Enlightenment. Allied to this was the notion of a single vehicle (ekay‚na) in which all other doctrines were united. Most important was the "Three Levels of Truth"-development, which bears traces of the influence of N‚g‚rjuna: Void of Emptiness, Temporariness and Mean which have to be treated as "all in one and one in all". Emptiness means that no dharma can exist by itself but is causally generated in dependence. Mean arises from the fact that void and temporariness are two sides of a dualism. The school advocated "concentration and insight". Concentration puts an end to erroneous thinking by making it clear that all dharmas are devoid of self-nature and hence exist without really existing. Insight means to fully penetrate the core of all dharmas and to become grounded in Absolute Mind (Womb of the Tath‚gata). After Chih-i the line of T'ien-t'ai was contined by several schools (Kuanting, T'ien-kung, Tso-chi, Ch'an-jan and Tao-sui) and was finally introduced to Japan (Tendai) in the 9th century.

The Pure Land School (Ching t'u)

The principal text is represented by the Smaller and Larger Sukh‚vatÓ- vyŻha SŻtras. The devotees of this school venerate Amith‚ba and seek rebirth in the Western Paradise (Pure Land of Amith‚ba), also called Sukh‚vatÓ. This school is founded on the idea that during degenerate periods Enlightenment could not be achieved by the own effort, but that oneself would be dependable on external grace: Amith‚ba. This represents the opposite of egoistic "self-power" but "other-power" (tariki). Pure Land Buddhism reflected the Mah‚y‚na accommodation to devotional forms of practice. The mantric repitition of the name Amith‚ba (O-mi-tŰ-fŰ) was the practice developed here.

The teachings of this school were later transmitted to Korea and then to Japan, where divisions into the JŰdo and JŰdo Shin sub-schools occurred.

The Dhy‚na School (Ch'an; Jap.: Zen)

This school is actually based on the Lank‚vat‚ra, Heart, Vimalakirti- nirdťsa and Vajracchedik‚ SŻtras. Ch'an represents the finest achievement of Chinese Buddhism: an original and highly creative re-expression of the essence of Buddha's teaching in terms that are distinctively Chinese. It can be regarded besides Abhidharma, Mah‚y‚na and Tantra as a major creation of Buddhism. It was transmitted to Korea (Son), to Vietnam and Japan (Zen).

Ch'an is often described as the "down-to-earth" practical attitude of simplicity of the Chinese while the Indians, on the other hand, are more airy and metaphysical. Ch'an is about a return to the basic Buddhist essentials with the final objective of Enlightenment. The general thrust of Ch'an (dhy‚na) is typified by its rejection of book- learning and verbalisation. What, however, was transmitted was Enlightenment itself from master to disciple and, in-spite of the contempt of the written word, the Ch'an- masters were well-versed with the Lank‚vat‚ra, Heart, Vimalakirti- nirdťsa and Vajracchedik‚ SŻtras. What the early Chinese masters stressed was the "non-abiding mind" - the mind that rests nowhere, beyond all thought and relativity. Ch'an can be practised during the normal activity of the day: continual introspection of the mid arouses an inner potentiality (nei chih) which eventually breaks through into ordinary consciousness and finally into marvellous emptiness.

A leading figure in early Ch'an is Bodhidharma, a south Indian master, who is said to have arrived in China around 520. The history of the Ch'an school begins in earnest with the Sixth Patriarch, Hui-neng (638-713). Some later sub-schools survived: the Lin-chi (Jap. Rinzai) and the Ts'ao-tung (Jap. SŰtŰ). Ch'an also managed to break the dichotomy between the sacred and the profane. In a similar spirit, some Ch'an masters were disposed to announce that there was nothing special about any of Buddhism.

The picture that emerges of Buddhism in T'ang dynasty China is very impressive with thousands of temples and monasteries and flourishing Sanghas where the Sangha was often and in very Chinese style practically involved in doing good works. As a cultural contribution the invention of printing by Chinese Buddhists is of great significance (9th century). Buddhist monasteris developed into powerful centres of commerce which introduced modern-style capitalism and banking in China, but since bureaucracy was pioneered in China, the Sangha was later strictly controlled by the authorities.

Church/state tensions became acute towards the middle of 9th century the T'and dynasty was ravaged by civil war. This resulted in a weakening of Buddhism in China and a revival of Confuzian values, as new and improved variety, equipped with a sophisticated metaphysic that owed not a little to Buddhist philosophy. Another blow was the decline of Buddhism in India due to the penetration of Islam and some deterioration in the quality of the Sangha, caused in part by the practice inaugurated by the Sung dynasty (960-1279) of trafficking in monk certificates in order to raise funds, although the Sung period can be seen as golden Ch'an age.

The decline of Buddhism in China was inevitable. A minor but perhaps indicative popular development during the Sung period was the transformation of the dignified Maitreya, the Buddha-to-be, into Pu-tai, the "Hemp Sack Monk", often known as the "Laughing Buddha". As Pu-tai is depicted as a grinning, pot-bellied hedonist, he suggests the celebration of worldly rather than spiritual values: there is also a hint of decadence about him.

The Mongols established the YŁan dynasty in China in 1280 and made Buddhism (Lamaism) the state religion - for the final time.

2.2.4 Vietnam and Korea

The Sri Lankan Therav‚da Buddhism was not successful in Vietnam due to the strong links with China. Chinese forms of Mah‚y‚na Buddhism (Ch'an and Pure Land) were introduced.

Buddhism was introduced in Korea from China around the 4th century AD. The transmission continued consequently and many of the principal Chinese schools were introduced but, at the end Korea concentrated mainly on Ch'an (Son). Korean Buddhism enjoyed its golden age during the Silla (668-935) and Koryo (935-1392) periods.

From the 13th century Korea followed the Chinese model by growing neo-Confucianism. During present history Korean Son was revitalised as a unified Chogye order.

2.2.5 Japan

The Kamakura Period (1185-1333) was a period of crisis. Power was taken from the class of the imperial aristocracy by the warrior class (Samurai) and a military governorship (ShŰgunate) was 1185 established at Kamakura, well away from the capital KyŰto. Consequently the spiritual schools of Tendai and Shingon were replaced by the more earthly Zen school. The devotional cults brought Buddhism within reach of the ordinary man. Two major Pure Land schools developed: JŰdo-shŻ (Pure Land School) and JŰdo ShinshŻ (True Pure Land School).

The founder of the Shin sub-school was HŰnen ShŰnin (1132-1212) who advocated an "easy path" with assistance of Amida coupled with the recitation of Nembutsu (Amida recital). This practice was strengthened by his successor Shinran ShŰnin (1173-1262), the founder of JŰdo ShinshŻ. A highly controversial figure was Nichiren ShŰnin (1222-82) who preached, based on the Lotus SŻtra, that Enlightenment of Buddha Shakyamuni could be evoked here and now.

Arguable more important than the development of popular devotional forms of Buddhism was the rise of Zen with an emphasis on self-power to the realisation of Enlightenment. It was favoured by the Samurai class for practical reasons and to face death with equanimity. Zen also influenced the Japanese arts like the tea ceremony (cha-no yu).

The two major surviving branches of the Chinese Ch'an (Lin-chi-Rinzai: transmitted by Eisai (1141-1215)(he reportedly introduced tea from China to Japan) and Ts'ao-tung-SŰtŰ: transmitted by DŰgen (1200-1253)) were introduced during the Kamakura period.

During the Ashikaga (or Muromachi) Period (1336-1573) until the establishment of the Tokugawa ShŰgunate, Buddhism in Japan experienced a decline. A slide into "long narcosis" (Suzuki) now began that was to broadly last into the 19th century. Of the various Buddhist schools the Rinzai Zen School fared best during the 14th and 15th centuries.

During the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods (1573-1868) Buddhism went down, although Japan became re-united, especially under the Tokugawa ShŰgunate which ruled Japan from Edo (modern Tokyo) for more than two centuries, with complete closure to the outside world. Neo-Cofucianism became the official creed in Japan. Hakuin Zenji (1685-1768) reformed the Rinzai Zen and laid the foundation for the future development of the Zen-School to the modern time. Since 1868, with the coming of the Meiji restoration, ShintŰ as detachment of Buddhism became a state cult.

2.2.6 Mongolia

Although the Mongols came in contact with Chinese Buddhism as early as the 4th century, Mongolian Buddhism really came into being through contacts with the Tibetan Buddhism and no truly local development took place. The Mongol YŁan dynasty brought Lamaism to China. The chief monastery in Outer Mongolia is Gandenthekchenling in Ulan Bator, seat of the Khambo Lama. In the past various Mongol tulkus appeared, among them the Hutuktu tulku or "Grand Lama of Urga" (Ulan Bator).

2.2.7 Russia

The Mongols brought Buddhism to Russia into three pockets (Buryatia: near Lake Baikal: 40 miles from the capital Ulan Ude there is a large monastery, the Ivolginsky, furthermore in Chita and secondly among the Kalmuks and thirdly in Tuva, east of the Altai mountains, with half a million Buddhists in all these regions.

2.2.8 Himalayan Region

Buddhism developed in Ladakh together with Spiti and Zanskar enclaves (Gelug-Pa and Drug-Pa Kargyu schools), in Sikkim (Tibetans from Kham brought the Karma-Pa, the Karma Kargyu school which subjugated the gentle Lepcha animists) as well as in Aruna Pradesh, in Nepal (mix of Buddhism and Hinduism: with four schools of philosophy: Svabh‚vika, Ashvarika, Karmika and Yatrika: in the Hindu-environment Sangha forsook the monastic Vinaya and became a caste on their own, although many fleeing Buddhists from India during the Islam invasion brought their traditions)(with the Buddhist Sherpa enclave in the Rolwaling and Khumbu as well as also in Dolpo and Mustang) and Bhutan (Drug-Pa Kargyu School: Deb R‚jas).

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Mountain Pass between Lamayuru Gompa and Khalsa in the   Indus Valley, Ladakh 
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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View from the Lamayuru Gompa in the Direction of Wangla and into the Zanskar, Ladakh
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Lamayuru Gompa, Ladakh
Photos: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Wangla near Lamayuru Gompa, Ladakh
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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View from the Wangla Gompa into the Zanskar Mountains, Ladakh
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Confluence of Nubra and Shyok Rivers in the eastern Karakoram, Ladakh (1999 Expedition)
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Wild Camels in the Shyok Valley in the eastern Karakoram, Ladakh (1999 Expedition)
Photos: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Deskit Gompa in the Shyok Valley, Ladakh (1999 Expedition)
Photos: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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The Buddhist Sherpa Gompa Tengpoche in the Khumbu: View to the North
Photos: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Tengpoche: View to the South to the Amai Dablam 6 828 m
Photos: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Tengpoche with Buddhist TschŲrte: View to the South to the Kangtega 6 779 m left and Tramserku 6 608 m
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Tengpoche with TschŲrte: View to the South to the Kangtega
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Tengpoche in the Khumbu: View to the East to the highest Mountains in the World: Everest/Lhotse/Nuptse Wall
Photos: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Beding, Community Centre of the Buddhist Sherpas in the Rolwaling with View to the East to the Trashi Laptsa Pass
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Beding with Buddhist Gompa and  Gaurisankar 7 145 m in the Background
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Sherpa Children in Beding in the Rolwaling
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Sherpa Woman in Beding in the Rolwaling
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Sherpa Women in Na, east of Beding in the Rolwaling
Photos: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Sherpa in Na
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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Sherpa Children in Na
Photo: Copyright: Klaus Dierks

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