5.0  FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY IN THE STUDY AREA

 

5.1 UNPAVED ROADS

5.1.1 OSHIKOTO REGION

The findings of the field trips for unpaved roads in the Oshikoto Region are summarised in table 31:

TABLE 31: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: UNPAVED ROADS: OSHIKOTO REGION

 

Road No. District

Start-End Km

Stations

EAADT

Pavement Type

Findings of the Field Survey

D2863 Tsumeb 29,4 33,3 (Kombat)-Reg.Border-D3022

35

A-E Maintained by Otjozondjupa Region

Calcrete/quartzite material with oversize material.

R.Q. is fair to warning.

Shrubs growing on shoulder.

See: Photos 001 and 002

D3001 Tsumeb 0,0 19,0 T0110 (south of Oshivelo)-D3004

7

E Graded every third week

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel

Gradeability and R.Q. are good

D3001 Tsumeb 19,0 40,7 D3004-D3007

7

E Graded every third week.

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3001 Tsumeb 40,7 58,4 D3007-D3047

7

E Graded every third week.

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3001 Tsumeb 58,4 79,6 D3047-M0075 (south Tsintsabis)

7

E Graded every third week.

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

See: Photo 003

D3003 Tsumeb 0,0 27,8 T0110-D3028

5

E Graded once in three months.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good to fair.

D3004 Tsumeb 0,0 20,9 T0110-D3001

4

E Graded once in three months.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3007 Tsumeb 0,0 54,4 T0110 (north of Tsumeb)-D3001

8

E Graded every third week.

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3016 Tsumeb 0,0 18,1 M0075 (Tsintsabis)-D3017

4

E Graded once in three months.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

See: Photo 004

D3016 Tsumeb 18,1 25,0 D3017-Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)

4

E Graded once in three months.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3017 Tsumeb 39,3 53,6 Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)-D3016

15

E Graded once in three months.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3021 Tsumeb 0,0 14,5 M0072-Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)

6

E Maintained by Otjozondjupa Region.

Calcrete material with oversize material at places.

R.Q. is good to fair.

D3022 Tsumeb 13,4 27,2 (M0072)-Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)-D2863

25

E Maintained by Otjozondjupa Region.

Calcrete material with oversize material at places.

R.Q. is good to fair.

Road reserve has to be debushed.

D3022 Tsumeb 27.2 41,4 D2863-Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)

25

E Maintained by Otjozondjupa Region.

Calcrete material with oversize material at places.

R.Q. is good to fair.

Road reserve has to be debushed.

D3025 Tsumeb 0,0 47,8 DR3028- Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)

1

E Graded twice a year.

Is in the process to be deproclaimed as a district road.

D3028 Tsumeb 64,0 90,7 (Otavi)-Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)-D3025

3

E Graded once in three months.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3028 Tsumeb 90,7 93,3 D3025-D3003

3

E Graded once in three months.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3028 Tsumeb 93,3 113,0 D3003-M0084

3

E Graded once in three months.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3031 Tsumeb 48,3 56,4 (Otavi)-Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)-D3043

5

E Maintained by Otjozondjupa Region.

Calcrete material.

R.Q. is good.

D3039 Tsumeb 0,0 20,6 M0075-Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)

2

E Graded once in three months.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3043 Tsumeb 0,0 19,4 T0110-D3031

13

E Graded every second week.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3043 Tsumeb 19,4 24,1 D3031- Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)-(D3028)

13

E Graded every second week.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3047 Tsumeb 0,0 42,5 M0075 (north of Tsumeb)-D3001 (west of Tsintsabis)

4

E Graded every fifth week.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3600 Tsumeb 0,0 13,3 M0075/D3016 (Tsintsabis)-Reg.Border (Ohangwena)

2

Not built yet Not travelled
D3602 Tsumeb 50.6 57,3 Reg.Border (Ohangwena)-D3603 (Okankolo)

37

A/E Graded every second week.

The In-Situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion.

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel.

Gradeability and R.Q. are fair to warning.

D3603 Tsumeb 0,0 31,2 T0111 (Onathinge)-D3602 (Okankolo)

59

A/E Graded every second week.

The In-Situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion.

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel.

Gradeability and R.Q. are fair to warning.

D3603 Tsumeb 31,2 40,4 D3602 (Okankolo)-D3631

59

A/E Graded every second week.

The In-Situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion.

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel.

Gradeability and R.Q. are fair.

D3603 Tsumeb 40,4 91,9 D3631-D3630 (Ohumbula)

4

Not built yet Not travelled
D3603 Tsumeb 91,9 132,9 D3630 (Ohumbula)-Reg.Border (Ohangwena)-(Okongo)

4

Not built yet Not travelled
D3606 Tsumeb 6,7 11,1

(the total distance from D 3629 to Oluno is ± 6 km)

Reg.Border (Oshana)-D3629 (west of Olukonda)

16

Labour-based Construction

A/E

Graded every second week.

The original wearing course (calcrete) has been removed by E.B. grader maintenance (width of road increased from an original 6,00 m wearing course to ± 10,00 m.).

The In-Situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to high corrosion and erosion: but due to lower traffic loads D3606 has a R.Q. from fair to warning with a maintained speed of 88-90 km/h.

D3625 Tsumeb 24,7 31,1 Reg.Border (Ohangwena) –Oshigambo

19

Labour-based Construction

E

Graded every second week.

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3625 Tsumeb 31,1 31,4 Oshigambo- M0121 (Oshigambo Junction)

19

Labour-based Construction

E

Graded every second week.

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3629 Tsumeb 0,0 3,4 T0111 (Onethindi)-DR3606 (Olukonda)

31

A/E or B:weak cohesion, loose material Traffic counts have to be verified: The EAADT seems too low: the Consulting Engineers (BICON) had a traffic count (End 1998) of ADT=165 2 km west of Onathindi and ADT=113 at Olukonda.

Graded every second week.

The original wearing course (calcrete) has been removed by E.B. grader maintenance (width of road increased from an original 6,00 m wearing course to ± 10,00 m.).

The in-situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to high corrosion and erosion: the R.Q. (warning to poor) of the road is so bad that the traffic is driving on tracks on both sides and in the drains: 60 to 80 km/h are difficult to maintain.

The gradeability is poor.

D3629 Tsumeb 3,4 5,8 DR3606 (Olukonda)-End of road (Okaloko)

22

A/E Graded every second week.

The original wearing course (calcrete) has been removed by E.B. grader maintenance (width of road increased from an original 6,00 m wearing course to ± 10,00 m.).

The in-situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to high corrosion and erosion: but due to lower traffic loads the section of D3629 has a R.Q. from fair to warning with a maintained speed of 88-90 km/h.

D3630 Tsumeb 0,0 13,1 T0111 (Onyati)-DR3631 (Onyuulaye)

34

Labour-based Construction

A/E

Graded every second week.

The in-situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to high corrosion (fixed corrugation) and erosion

R.Q. from fair to warning with a maintained speed of 88-90 km/h.

See: Photo 005

D3630 Tsumeb 13,1 80,0 D3631 (Onyuulaye)-D3603 (Ohumbula

9

Labour-based Construction

E

Graded every second week.

Gradeability and R.Q. of the silcrete/gypscrete material are good.

D3631 Tsumeb 0,0 20,5 D3603 (east of Okankolo)-D3630 (Onyuulaye)

10

Labour-based Construction

E

Graded every second week.

Gradeability and R.Q. of the silcrete/gypscrete material are good.

M0075 Tsumeb 11,6 21,2 End of Seal-D3047

79

E Graded every second week.

Good calcrete wearing course with some oversize material.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

M0075 Tsumeb 21,2 27,9 D3047-D3039

79

E Graded every second week.

Good calcrete wearing course with some oversize material.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

M0075 Tsumeb 27,9 61,2 D3039-D3001

79

E Graded every second week.

Good calcrete wearing course with some oversize material.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

M0075 Tsumeb 61,2 65,0 D3001-D3016 (Tsintsabis)

79

E Graded every second week.

Good calcrete wearing course with some oversize material.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

M0075 Tsumeb 65,0 65,2 D3016 (Tsintsabis)-D3600

79

E Graded every second week.

Good calcrete wearing course with some oversize material.

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

M0121 Tsumeb 21,6 23,4 M0121: End of Seal (Oshigambo)-Reg.Border (Ohangwena)

535

A/E The in-situ fill consists of N.P. to S.P. sands and the one layer wearing course consists of poor sandy calcretes. It is loose in places and is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion.

The R.Q. is fair to poor (warning) and the gradeability tends to warning.

This section of M0121 is graded every week.

 Note to table 31: Classification of Wearing Courses for Gravel and Earth Roads (Draft TRH 20)

bulletClass A: Erodible Materials: Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370 (100-150: can perform satisfactorily: is finely graded: prone to erosion by water; 150-250: high gravel losses due to erosion; 250-370: ); Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 15,8;
bulletClass B: Material ravels and corrugates: Shrinkage Product between 0 and 100 (2-50: rough; 50-100: lack of cohesion: loose material); Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 48,0;
bulletClass C: Material ravels: Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370; Grading Coefficient: between 34,0 and 48,0 (fine gap graded gravels: no cohesion, loose material);
bulletClass D: Material is slippery: Shrinkage Product between 370 and 550 (depending on PI: 4 to 18 and GM: 1,1 to 1,5 to 1,9; Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 48,0;
bulletClass E: Material is good (but may be dusty): Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370; Grading Coefficient: between 16,0 and 34,0 (restrict oversize material to recommended limits: £ 5% + 37,5 mm);

PHOTOS:

Namibia.Otjozondjupa.D2863_1.jpg (98800 bytes)

Photo 001: D2863: Kombat to ||Ghaub: 23 km from Kombat: View to the Northeast: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.Otjozondjupa.D2863_2.jpg (99750 bytes)

Photo 002: D2863: Kombat to ||Ghaub: 30 km from Kombat: View to the South: Oshikoto Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.Otjozondjupa.D2863_3.jpg (91610 bytes)

Photo 003: D3001: D3047-M0075: 8 km west of M0075: View to West
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.Owambo.Oshikoto.LaRochelle_1.jpg (78067 bytes)

Photo 004: D3016: M0075 (Tsintsabis) to D3017: 8 km from Tsintsabis: View to the East
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.Owambo.Oshikoto.D3630_2.jpg (78235 bytes)

Photo 005: D3630: T0111 (Onyati) to D3631 (Onyuulaye): 16 km from T0111 at Onyati: View to the West
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

 

5.1.2  OSHANA REGION

 

The findings of the field trips for unpaved roads in the Oshana Region are summarised in table 32:

 

TABLE 32: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: UNPAVED ROADS: OSHANA REGION

 

Road No. District

Start-End Km

Stations

EAADT

Pavement Type

Findings of the Field Survey

D3605 Ondangwa 1,65 12,8 End of Paved Section (D3605)-End of built road (Uukwiyo)

18

Labour-based Construction

A/E

Graded every second week.

The original wearing course (calcrete) has been removed by E.B. grader maintenance (width of road increased from an original 6,00 m wearing course to ± 10,00 m.).

The in-situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to high corrosion and erosion: but due to lower traffic loads D3605 has a R.Q. from fair to warning with a maintained speed of 80-90 km/h.

See: Photo 006

D3605 Ondangwa 12,8 66,5 End of built road (Uukwiyo)-Dist.Border (Oshakati)

18

Not built as yet Not travelled
D3606 Ondangwa 0,0 4,3

(the total distance from D 3629 to Oluno is ± 6 km)

D3605-approx. Oluno prison

(verify distance)

15

Labour-based Construction

A/E

Graded every second week.

The original wearing course (calcrete) has been removed by E.B. grader maintenance (width of road increased from an original 6,00 m wearing course to ± 10,00 m.).

The in-situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to high corrosion and erosion: but due to lower traffic loads D3606 has a R.Q. from good to warning with a maintained speed of 80-90 km/h.

D3606 Ondangwa 4,3 6,7

(the total distance from D 3629 to Oluno is ± 6 km)

Approx. Oluno prison-Reg.Border (Oshikoto)-(Olukonda)

(verify distance)

16

Labour-based Construction Graded every second week.

The original wearing course (calcrete) has been removed by E.B. grader maintenance (width of road increased from an original 6,00 m wearing course to ± 10,00 m.).

The in-situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to high corrosion and erosion: but due to lower traffic loads D3606 has a R.Q. from good to warning with a maintained speed of 80-90 km/h.

D3636 Ondangwa 0,0 8,9 M0092 (Okaku)-Dist.Border (Oshakati)

47

Labour-based Construction Under construction.

See: Photos 007 to 012

D3637 Ondangwa 0,0 17,6 M0092 (Okapya)-D3638 (Ohalushu)

20

Labour-based Construction Under construction

See: Photo 031

D3638 Ondangwa 10,2 13,1 (Ongha)-Reg.Border (Ohangwena)-D3637 (Ohalushu)

10

Labour-based Construction Under construction
D3638 Ondangwa 13,1 25,9 D3637 (Ohalushu)-Dist.Border (Oshakati)

10

Labour-based Construction Under construction
D3605 Oshakati 66,5 90,8 Dist.Border (Ondangwa)-Reg.Border (Omusati)

18

Not built as yet Not travelled
D3607 Oshakati 0,0 14,8 M0092 (Oshakati)-Ompundja

23

Labour-based Construction

A/E

Graded every second week.

The original wearing course (calcrete) has been removed by E.B. grader maintenance (width of road increased from an original 6,00 m wearing course to ± 10,00 m.).

The in-situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion: but due to lower traffic loads D3607 has a R.Q. from fair to warning with a maintained speed of 80-90 km/h.

D3609 Oshakati 0,0 10,7 M0092 (west of Oshakati)-Reg.Border (Omusati)

50

  The in-situ S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion.

The sandy calcrete wearing course (re-gravelled ± 1995) gives a reasonable R.Q. (good to warning) and gradeability.

D3609 is graded once a week.

A speed of 80-90 km/h can be maintained.

D3636 Oshakati 8,9 24,5 Dist.Border (Ondangwa)- Onakamwandi

47

Labour-based Construction Under construction
D3638 Oshakati 25,9 30,3 Dist.Border (Ondangwa)-M0092 (Eko)

10

Labour-based Construction Under construction
D3647 Oshakati 0,0 ± 10,0 M0120 (Ombwata- Reg.Border (Ohangwena)-(Ongenga)   Not built as yet

(crossing Oshanas Epundi and Okahenge)

 
M0120 Oshakati 6,3 11,8 (M0092)-(End of Seal at Oshana Okatana)-Reg.Border (Ohangwena)-(Endola)

72

A/E M0120 is only built to Endola.

From Endola to Omafu it still has to be constructed.

The in-situ fill consists of N.P. to S.P. sands and the one layer wearing course consists of poor sandy calcretes. It is loose in places and is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion.

The R.Q. is fair to poor (warning) and the gradeability tends to warning.

This section of M0120 is graded every week.

Note to table 32: Classification of Wearing Courses for Gravel and Earth Roads (Draft TRH 20)

bulletClass A: Erodible Materials: Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370 (100-150: can perform satisfactorily: is finely graded: prone to erosion by water; 150-250: high gravel losses due to erosion; 250-370: ); Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 15,8;
bulletClass B: Material ravels and corrugates: Shrinkage Product between 0 and 100 (2-50: rough; 50-100: lack of cohesion: loose material); Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 48,0;
bulletClass C: Material ravels: Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370; Grading Coefficient: between 34,0 and 48,0 (fine gap graded gravels: no cohesion, loose material);
bulletClass D: Material is slippery: Shrinkage Product between 370 and 550 (depending on PI: 4 to 18 and GM: 1,1 to 1,5 to 1,9; Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 48,0;
bulletClass E: Material is good (but may be dusty): Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370; Grading Coefficient: between 16,0 and 34,0 (restrict oversize material to recommended limits: £ 5% + 37,5 mm);

PHOTOS:

Namibia.Owambo.Oshana.D3605_1.jpg (60483 bytes)

Photo 006: D3605: End of Seal(Oluno) to End of built D3605: km 5,5 from End of Seal (Oluno): View to the North-East
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia_Owambo_Oshana_Road3636_LabourBased_2.jpg (71823 bytes)Namibia_Owambo_Oshana_Road3636_LabourBased_3.jpg (63823 bytes)Namibia_Owambo_Oshana_Road3636_LabourBased_4.jpg (67873 bytes)Namibia_Owambo_Oshana_Road3636_LabourBased_6.jpg (98185 bytes)Namibia_Owambo_Oshana_Road3636_LabourBased_5.jpg (71662 bytes)

Namibia_Owambo_Oshana_Road3636_LabourBased_1.jpg (57243 bytes)

Photos 007 to 012: D3636: Main Road 92 (Northwest of Ondangwa) to End (Onakamwandi): Labour-based Construction: Task Work: 4 m³ per Task for approx. US$ 2,20 per Task: Up to 4 Tasks can be managed by some People: Labour-based Road Building was introduced in Namibia, against the Resistance of many conservative, South Africa trained Engineers, by the Author of this Study at Independence: After many Years of Research and many Trials, Namibia is now a Leader in Labour-based Technology in Africa: Project financed by German Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau
Copyright of Photos: M Engelien

 

5.1.3   OHANGWENA REGION

 

The findings of the field trips for unpaved roads in the Ohangwena Region are summarised in table 33:

 

TABLE 33: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: UNPAVED ROADS: OHANGWENA REGION

 

Road No. District

Start-End Km

Stations

EAADT

Pavement Type

Findings of the Field Survey

D3600 Eenhana 113,3 128,4 Reg.Border (Oshikoto)-M0110

5

Not built as yet Not travelled
D3602 Eenhana 0,0 3,5 Elundu-M0110

37

A/E The in-situ S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a good R.Q. and gradeability.

D3602 is graded once a month.

D3602 Eenhana 3,5 50,6 M0110-Reg.Border (Oshikoto)-(Okankolo)

37

  The in-situ S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a good R.Q. and gradeability.

D3602 is graded once a month.

D3603 Eenhana 132,9 153,1 Reg.Border (Oshikoto)-M0110 (Okongo)

4

Not built as yet Not travelled
D3604 Eenhana 0,0 11,7 M0121-Uukango

3

Not built as yet Not travelled
D3608 Eenhana 3,5 29,1 End of Seal (Engela)-Ongenga-D3609

38

E D3608 was re-gravelled with fine-graded calcrete in 2000 and gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3608 is graded once a week.

See: Photos 013 and 014

D3608 Eenhana 29,1 35,3 D3609-Reg.Border (Omusati)

50

E D3608 was re-gravelled with fine-graded calcrete in 2000 and gradeability and R.Q. are good.

D3608 is graded once a week.

D3609 Eenhana 24,8 36,9 (Oshakati)-Reg.Border (Omusati)-Omungwelume-D3608

50

A/E The in-situ S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The sandy calcrete wearing course (re-gravelled ± 1995) gives a reasonable R.Q. (good to warning) and gradeability.

D3609 is graded once a week.

A speed of 80-90 km/h can be maintained.

See: Photo 015

D3624 Eenhana 0,0 14,6 M0110 (14,5 km east of Elundu Junction)-End of Road (Omunghaundilo)

14

Equipment-based Construction

A/E

The in-situ S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a reasonable R.Q. (good to warning) and gradeability.

D3624 is graded once a month.

A speed of 80-90 km/h can be maintained.

D3625 Eenhana 0,0 24,7 M0110 (18,7 km east of Omafo: Ondobe)-Reg.Border (Oshikoto)-(Oshigambo)

15

Labour-based Construction

A/E

Graded every second week

Gravelled by fair calcrete gravel

Gradeability and R.Q. are good.

The original cross section of the road has not been properly maintained.

A speed of 80-90 km/h can be maintained.

See: Photo 017

D3638 Eenhana 0,0 10,2 T0111 (Ongha)-Reg.Border (Oshana)

6

Labour-based Construction Under construction
D3639 Eenhana 0,0 24,4 T0111 (north of Junction with D3608: south of Oshikango)-Odibo-M0110 (Junction with D3625)

190

Not built as yet Not travelled
D3647 Eenhana ± 10,0 ± 31,5 Reg.Border (Ohangwena)-D3608 (Ongenga)   Not built as yet

(crossing Oshanas Epundi and Okahenge)

See photo 17
M0110 Eenhana 71,9 86,4 End of Seal (D3602: Elundu Junction)-D3624

50

A/E The in-situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The sandy calcrete wearing course (re-gravelled 2000) gives a poor R.Q. (warning) and gradeability (warning), and under heavy traffic dust results in many accidents. Some powder holes were observed.

M0110 is graded once a week.

A speed of 80-90 km/h can be maintained.

M0110 Eenhana 86,4 124,1 D3624-D3603 (Okongo)

50

A/E The in-situ N.P. to S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The sandy calcrete wearing course (re-gravelled 2000) gives a poor R.Q. (warning) and gradeability (warning), and under heavy traffic dust results in many accidents. Some powder holes were observed.

M0110 is graded once a week.

The last 20 km to Okongo are presently re-gravelled with good calcrete: here the R.Q. and gradeability are good.

A speed of 80-90 km/h can be maintained.

See: Photo 018

M0110 Eenhana 124,1 204,6 D3603 (Okongo)-D3600

50

A/E/B The in-situ fill consists of N.P. to S.P. sands and the one layer wearing course consists of poor sandy calcretes. It is loose in places and is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The R.Q. is fair to poor (warning) and the gradeability tends to warning.

This section of M0110 is graded every second week.

M0110 Eenhana 204,6 208,8 D3600-Reg.Border (Kavango)

50

  The in-situ fill consists of N.P. to S.P. sands and the one layer wearing course consists of poor sandy calcretes. It is loose in places and is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The R.Q. is fair to poor (warning) and the gradeability tends to warning.

This section of M0110 is graded every second week.

M0120 Eenhana 11,8 22,7 Reg.Border (Oshana)-Endola

72

A/E The in-situ fill consists of N.P. to S.P. sands and the one layer wearing course consists of poor sandy calcretes. It is loose in places and is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The R.Q. is fair to poor (warning) and the gradeability tends to warning.
M0120 Eenhana 22,7 42,5 Endola- T0111 (Omafo)

72

Not built as yet Not travelled
M0121 Eenhana 23.4 39,0 Reg.Border (Oshikoto)-D3604

82

A/E The in-situ fill consists of N.P. to S.P. sands and the one layer wearing course consists of poor sandy calcretes. It is loose in places and is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The R.Q. is fair to poor (warning) and the gradeability tends to warning.

This section of M0121 is graded every week.

M0121 Eenhana 39,0 67,3 D3604-M0110 (Eenhana)

82

A/E The in-situ fill consists of N.P. to S.P. sands and the one layer wearing course consists of poor sandy calcretes. It is loose in places and is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The R.Q. is fair to poor (warning) and the gradeability tends to warning.

This section of M0121 is graded every week.

Note to table 33: Classification of Wearing Courses for Gravel and Earth Roads (Draft TRH 20)

bulletClass A: Erodible Materials: Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370 (100-150: can perform satisfactorily: is finely graded: prone to erosion by water; 150-250: high gravel losses due to erosion; 250-370: ); Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 15,8;
bulletClass B: Material ravels and corrugates: Shrinkage Product between 0 and 100 (2-50: rough; 50-100: lack of cohesion: loose material); Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 48,0;
bulletClass C: Material ravels: Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370; Grading Coefficient: between 34,0 and 48,0 (fine gap graded gravels: no cohesion, loose material);
bulletClass D: Material is slippery: Shrinkage Product between 370 and 550 (depending on PI: 4 to 18 and GM: 1,1 to 1,5 to 1,9; Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 48,0;
bulletClass E: Material is good (but may be dusty): Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370; Grading Coefficient: between 16,0 and 34,0 (restrict oversize material to recommended limits: £ 5% + 37,5 mm);

PHOTOS:

Owambo.Ohangwena.D3608_2.jpg (94894 bytes)

Photo 013: D3608: From End of Seal at Engela to M0092 at Outapi: 5,0 km west of Engela: View to the West
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Ohangwena.D3608_3.jpg (53526 bytes)

Photo 014: D3608: From End of Seal at Engela to M0092 at Outapi: 2,0 km west of Ongenga: View to the East
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.Owambo.Ohangwena.D3609_2.jpg (66534 bytes)

Photo 015: D3609: D3608 (Ongenga) to M0092 (north-west of Oshakati): 2,0 km north of Omungwelume: View to the North
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Oshikoto.D3625_1.jpg (90542 bytes)

Photo 016: D3625: M0121 (Oshigambo) to M0110 (Ondobe): km 2,0 from Oshikoto/Ohangwena Border: Access to Onamkulo School: View to the South
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.Owambo.Ohangwena.D3647_1.jpg (118221 bytes)

District Road 3647 between Ombwata near Endola and Ongenga in the Ohangwena Region: Road proclaimed but not built yet
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Ohangwena.M0110_5.jpg (66550 bytes)

Photo 046: M0110: From Elundu Junction (D3602) to Okongo: 5 km west of Okongo: new Gravel Section: View to the West
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

 

5.1.4   OMUSATI REGION

 

The findings of the field trips for unpaved roads in the Omusati Region are summarised in table 34:

 

TABLE 34: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: UNPAVED ROADS: OMUSATI REGION

 

Road No. District

Start-End Km

Stations

EAADT

Pavement Type

Findings of the Field Survey

D3605 Outapi

90,8 225,1

Reg.Border (Oshana)-M0067 (Otjondeka)

19

Not built as yet Not travelled
D3608 Outapi

35,3 60,1

Reg.Border (Ohangwena)-D3611 (Okalongo)

40

E (10: Cape13 in Okalongo) Re-gravelled recently: The R.Q. and gradeability are both good.

Graded once a week.

± 2 km paving with Cape 13 single seal layer in Okalongo Town in progress)

D3608 Outapi

60,1 99,1

D3611 (Okalongo)-Anamulenge-M0092 (Outapi)

10

Labour-based Construction:

A/E

(10: Cape13: 1,0 km from M0092 to RC Mission Station Anamulenge))

Gravelling to Anamulenge (1 km north of M0092) with sandy calcrete material is in progress: The R.Q. and gradeability are both good (to warning in places).

Graded every second week.

The L.B. constructed section consists of in-situ material only and R.Q. and gradeability tend both to warning, but the gravelling improves the situation.

The last section from M0092 to Anamulenge RC Mission Station gets a Cape 13 single seal layer.

See: Photos  019 and 020

D3609 Outapi

10,7 24,8

Reg. Border (Oshana)-Reg.Border (Ohangwena)

50

A/E The in-situ S.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The sandy calcrete wearing course (re-gravelled ± 1995) gives a reasonable R.Q. (good to warning) and gradeability.

D3609 is graded once a week.

A speed of 80-90 km/h can be maintained.

D3611 Outapi

5,5 28,8

(M0092 (Oshikuku)-End of Seal-D3608 (Okalongo)

57

15: G6

40: G6

50: G10

Gravelled Section to km 5,5 (north of M0092 at Oshikuku). Good R.Q. and gradeability.

Graded once a week.

D3614 Outapi

0,0 21,0

M0111 (Okahao)-M0122 (5 km west of MR 0111)   Labour-based Construction Under Construction
D3615 Outapi

0,0 15,8

M0092 (Oshikuku)-Elim-M0111

38

E Recently re-gravelled with calcrete wearing course and drainage structures which make D3615 an all-weather road.

Good R.Q. and gradeability

Graded once a week

See: Photo 021

D3616 Outapi

0,0 20,0

M0092 (west of Mahenene: Epalela)-D3617 (Onesi)

47

E Constructed with engineered calcrete wearing course around 1995.

Good R.Q. and gradeability

Graded once a week

D3616 Outapi

20,0 47,8

D3617 (Onesi)-M0123 (Tsandi)

41

Labour-based Construction

E

Recently re-gravelled with calcrete wearing course and drainage structures which make D3616 an all-weather road.

Good R.Q. and gradeability

Graded once a week

D3617 Outapi

0.0 43,5

M0067- D3616 (Onesi)

20

E Recently re-gravelled with calcrete wearing course.

Good R.Q. and gradeability

Graded once a month.

See: Photo 022

D3618 Outapi

4,6 23,1

Ruacana Town (End of Seal)-Reg.Border (Kunene)-(D3700)

5

Not built as yet Not travelled
D3619 Outapi

0,0 14,0

M0111-Onaanda

20

Labour-based Construction

A/E/B

This was the first L.B. constructed earth road in the North.

The in-situ S.P. to N.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to corrosion and erosion.

The R.Q. is poor and the original cross section of the road not maintained.

D3619 is on the programme to be gravelled soon.

Graded once every second week.

D3626 Outapi 0.0 13,9 M0111 (Okahao)-Etilyasa

13

Labour-based Construction

A/E

The in-situ S.P. to N.P. fine, white sand is susceptible to some corrosion and erosion. The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a reasonable R.Q. (good to warning) and gradeability.

D3626 is graded every third week.

A speed of 80-90 km/h can be maintained.

See: Photo 023

D3627 Outapi 0,0 6,2 M0092-Angola Border (Calueque)

49

E The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a reasonable R.Q. (good) and gradeability.

D3626 is graded every week.

D3628 Outapi 0,0 1,7 M0092-Angola Border (Ruacana)   Paved to NamPower Transmission Station at Ruacana: N.D.

Last 0,65 km: A/B

The last 0,65 km from the end of seal near the NamPower Transmission Station to the Ruacana Namibia/Angola Border Post is not paved and only occasionally maintained by a grader. The section was not properly constructed and the R.Q. is poor.
D3633 Outapi 0,0 21,6 D3612 (Tsandi)-Omugulu-gOmbashe

22

E The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a reasonable R.Q. (good) and gradeability.

The recently (2001) put in drainage structures make D3633 an all-weather road.

D3633 is graded every third week.

See: Photo 024

D3635 Outapi 0,0 14,3 M0111 (Okahao)-Amwaanda

10

Labour-based Construction

E

The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a reasonable R.Q. (good) and gradeability.

D3635 is graded every third week.

D3700 Outapi 0,0 2,1 M0092 (Ruacana)-Reg.Border (Kunene)

42

Not built as yet Very poor R.Q. Sections of D3700 are occasionally under flood water from the Kunene River.

Occasionally maintained by grader (to Swartboois Drift)

Photos 25 to 29

M0067 Outapi 211,0 233,8 Reg.Border (Kunene)-Werda Gate

113

E The calcrete gravel wearing course gives a good R.Q.

Full all-weather road

Graded once a week (by Kunene Region)

M0067 Outapi 233,8 255,6 Werda Gate-Kowares

113

E The calcrete gravel wearing course gives a good R.Q.

Full all-weather road

Graded once a week (by Kunene Region)

M0067 Outapi 255,6 293,5 Kowares-D3709

113

E The calcrete gravel wearing course gives a good R.Q.

Full all-weather road

Graded once a week (by Kunene Region)

M0067 Outapi 293,5 297,5 D3709-D3605 (Otjondeka)

113

E The calcrete gravel wearing course gives a good R.Q.

Full all-weather road

Graded once a week (by Kunene Region)

M0067 Outapi 297,5 358,9 D3605 (Otjondeka)-M0100/M0122

113

E The calcrete gravel wearing course gives a good R.Q.

Full all-weather road

Graded once a week (by Kunene Region)

M0067 Outapi 358,9 379,1 M0100/M0122-Reg.Border (Kunene)

113

E The calcrete gravel wearing course gives a good R.Q.

Full all-weather road

Graded once a week (by Kunene Region)

M0067 Outapi 379,1 418,3 Reg.Border (Kunene)-D3617

113

E The calcrete gravel wearing course gives a good R.Q.

Full all-weather road

Graded once a week (by Kunene Region)

M0067 Outapi 418,3 443,6 D3617-M0092

113

E The calcrete gravel wearing course gives a good R.Q.

Full all-weather road

Graded once a week (by Kunene Region)

M0122 Outapi 0,0 95,2 M0067-M0111 (12 km west of Okahao)

55

Not built as yet M0122 is under design (presently surveyed)

Photo: 030

M0123 Outapi 0,0 30,3 M0092 (Outapi)-D3616 (Tsandi)

144

A/E The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a reasonable R.Q. (good) and gradeability.

Graded once a week.

A speed of 80-90 km/h can be maintained.

Photos 031 and 032

M0123 Outapi 30,3 31,1 D3616 (Tsandi)-D3633 (Tsandi)

95

E M0123 is currently under re-gravelling.

The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a good R.Q. and gradeability.

Graded once a week.

A speed of 90-100 km/h can be maintained.

M0123 Outapi 31,1 55,2 D3633 (Tsandi)-M0111 (Okahao)

95

E M0123 is currently under re-gravelling.

The sandy calcrete wearing course gives a good R.Q. and gradeability.

Graded once a week.

A speed of 90-100 km/h can be maintained.

Note to table 34: Classification of Wearing Courses for Gravel and Earth Roads (Draft TRH 20)

bulletClass A: Erodible Materials: Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370 (100-150: can perform satisfactorily: is finely graded: prone to erosion by water; 150-250: high gravel losses due to erosion; 250-370: ); Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 15,8;
bulletClass B: Material ravels and corrugates: Shrinkage Product between 0 and 100 (2-50: rough; 50-100: lack of cohesion: loose material); Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 48,0;
bulletClass C: Material ravels: Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370; Grading Coefficient: between 34,0 and 48,0 (fine gap graded gravels: no cohesion, loose material);
bulletClass D: Material is slippery: Shrinkage Product between 370 and 550 (depending on PI: 4 to 18 and GM: 1,1 to 1,5 to 1,9; Grading Coefficient: between 0 and 48,0;
bulletClass E: Material is good (but may be dusty): Shrinkage Product between 100 and 370; Grading Coefficient: between 16,0 and 34,0 (restrict oversize material to recommended limits: £ 5% + 37,5 mm);

PHOTOS:

Owambo.Omusati.D3608_4.jpg (73173 bytes)Namibia.Owambo.Omusati.D3608_5.jpg (57128 bytes)

Photoa 019 and 020: D3608: From End of Seal at Engela to M0092 at Outapi: 7 km west of Okalongo: Gravelled Section on Labour-Based constructed In-situ Material: View to the East
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.D3615_1.jpg (62365 bytes)

Photo 021: D3615: From M0092 at Oshikuku via Elim to M0111: 5 km south of M0092 (Oshikuku): View to the North
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.D3617_1.jpg (92950 bytes)

Photo 022: D3617: From Onesi to M0067: 2,0 km north-west of Onesi: View to the North-West
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.D3626_1.jpg (70431 bytes)

Photo 023: D3626: From M0111 at Okahao to Etilyasa: 2,0 km south-west of M0111 (Okahao): View to the South-East
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.D3633_1.jpg (63202 bytes)

Photo 024: D3633: From Tsandi to Omugulu-g’Ombashe (End of Road): 0,2 km south of M0123 (Tsandi): View to the West
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.KaokoKunene.D3700_1.jpg (86851 bytes)Namibia.KaokoKunene.D3700_5.jpg (123002 bytes)Namibia.KaokoKunene.D3700_7.jpg (102423 bytes)Namibia.KaokoKunene.D3700_9.jpg (118086 bytes)Namibia.KaokoKunene.D3700_10.jpg (101529 bytes)

Photos 025 to 29: D3700: From End of M0092 (Ruacana) to the Omusati/Kunene Regional Border (and further to Swartbooisdrift): Rainy Season: 2001/2002
Copyright of Photos Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.M0122_4.jpg (96641 bytes)

Photo 030: M0122: 78 km east of M0067: View to the East
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.M0122_2.jpg (63732 bytes)

Photo 031: M0122: 79 km east of M0067: View to the East
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.M0123_2.jpg (70056 bytes)

Photo 032: M0123: Outapi-Tsandi: 4 km west of M0092 (Outapi): View to the South
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

Owambo.Omusati.M0123_5.jpg (66061 bytes)

Photo 033: M0123: Outapi-Tsandi: 20 km west of M0092 (Outapi): View to the South
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

5.2   PAVED ROADS

 

5.2.1   OSHIKOTO REGION

 

The findings of the field trips for paved roads in the Oshikoto Region are shown in table 35:

TABLE 35: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: PAVED ROADS: OSHIKOTO REGION

 

Road No. District

Start-End Km

Stations

EAADT

Pavement Type

Findings of the Field Survey

M0072 Tsumeb 33,4 42,9 Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)-D3021

470

9: DE (1992)

10: Cape19

20: G3

LL (Dolomite)

30: G5/G6

40: G7

41: G6M/G7M

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

At isolated spots there are some Basecourse failures at western side.

M0072 Tsumeb 42,9 55,8 D3021-T0109-T0110 (Tsumeb)

470

9: DE (1992)

10: Cape19

20: G3

LL (Dolomite)

30: G5/G6

40:G7

41: G6M

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

At isolated spots there are some Basecourse failures at western side.

 

M0075 Tsumeb 0,0 3,9 T0109-T0110-M0072 (Tsumeb)-Tsumeb

410

10-50: ND Pavement in good order.
M0075 Tsumeb 3,9 4,3 Tsumeb-Railway Level Crossing

410

10-50: ND Pavement in good order.
M0075 Tsumeb 4,3 11,6 Railway Level Crossing -End of Seal

410

8: 4,83-5,7: Cape13 (1990)

9: 4,48-4,83: C11 (1987)

9: 4,83-5,7: SLF (1987)

9: 5,7-5,78: Cape13 (1990)

9: 5,78-11,6: SLF (1990)

10: 4,48-4,83: T13D

10: 4,83-5,7: T7

10: 5,7-11,6: T13D

20-50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

 

M0084 Tsumeb 0,0 5,8 T0110-D3028

120

9: 0,0-0,8: AG (1981)

9: 0,8-5,8: SLF (1984)

10: T13S

20: G4

SC (Calcrete/ Sandstone)

30: G5

40: G6

41: G6

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

 

M0084 Tsumeb 5,8 24,6 D3028-Von Lindequist Gate: Etosha

100

9: SLF (1984)

10: T13S

20: G4

SC (Calcrete/ Sandstone)

30: G5

40: G6

41: G6/G7

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

M0084 Tsumeb 24,6 35,5 Von Lindequist Gate: Etosha- Namutoni Rest Camp

100

9: SLF (1984)

10: T13S

20: G4

SC (Calcrete/ Sandstone)

30: G5

40: G6

41: G6/G8

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

 

M0121 Tsumeb 0,0 20,4 T0111 (Onathindi)-Onandjokwe-Oshigambo

3 735

Labour-based construction

ND

Good Quality L.B. built Paved Road.

 

M0121 Tsumeb 20,4 21,7 D3625 (Oshigambo)-End of Seal (Oshigambo)

3 735

Labour-based construction

ND

Good Quality L.B. built Paved Road: Routine Maintenance

 

T0109 Tsumeb 33,8 61,3 (Otavi)-Reg.Border (Otjozondjupa)-Carriageway Change

735

9: Cape13 (1978)

10: 33,8-49,8: SCP (1959/60)

10: 49,8-51,2: Cape13 (1979)

10: 51,2-61,3: SCP (1959)

20-50: ND

T0109 was built 1959/60 and resealed in 1978. Although the pavement is still in a fair condition it shows signs of pavement distress.

See: Photos 034 to 039

T0109 Tsumeb 61,3 61,9 Carriageway Change-T0110-M0072/M0075 (Tsumeb Intersection)

735

9: Cape13 (1978)

10: SCP (1959)

20-50: ND

T0109 was built 1959/60 and resealed in 1978. Although the pavement is still in a fair condition it shows signs of pavement distress.
T0110 Tsumeb 0,0 6,5 T0109/M0072 (Tsumeb Intersection)-Old M0083 (Access Road to Tsumeb)

780

8: AG (1981)

9: DE (1977)

10: ST2

20: G3

LL (Dolomite)

30: G6

40: G6

41: G6/G10

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

T0110 Tsumeb 6,5 9,7 Old M0083-D3007

780

8: AG (1981)

9: DE (1977)

10: ST2/AC

20: G4

CC (Calcrete)

30: G6/G5

40: G6

41: G10

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

T0110 Tsumeb 9,7 25,7 D3007-D3043

710

8: AG (1981)

9: DE (1977)

10: AC

20: G4

CC (Calcrete)

30: G5

40: G6/G7

41: G10/G7

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

T0110 Tsumeb 25,7 39,4 D3043-D3003

710

8: AG (1981)

9: DE (1977)

10: AC

20: G4

CC (Calcrete)

30: G5

40: G7/G6

41: G7/G10/G8/

G10

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

T0110 Tsumeb 39,4 61,0 D3003-D3004

710

8: AG (1981)

9: DE (1977)

10: AC

20: G4

CC (Calcrete)

30: G5

40: G6/G4/G6

41: G10/G7

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

T0110 Tsumeb 61.0 75,5 D3004-M0084

710

8: AG (1981)

9: DE (1977)

10: AC

20: G4

CC (Calcrete)

30: G5

40: G6

41: G7/G10/G7/

G9/G8

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

T0110 Tsumeb 75,5 84,0 M0084-D3001

710

8: AG (1981)

9: DE (1977)

10: AC

20: G4

CC (Calcrete)

40: G6/G7

41: G9/G7/G10

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

 

T0110 Tsumeb 84,0 94,8 D3001-Oshivelo

710

8: AG (1981)

9: DE (1977)

10: AC

20: G4

CC (Calcrete)

30: G5

40: G7/G6

41: G10/G7/G10

50: ND

Pavement in good order.

Some sealed cracking.

T0111 Tsumeb 0,0 92,2 Oshivelo-D3630 (Onyati)

710

5: N.D.

6: 24,9-92,2: DE (1992)

7: 18,0-20,3: DE (1992)

7: 20,3-24,9: Cape13 (1990)

7: 24,9-92,2: Cape13 (1990)

8: 0,0-28,8: AG (1980)

8: 29,08-92,2: AG (1980)

9: 0,0- 92,2: DE (1973)

10: 0,0-28.8: AC (1968)

10: 28,8-29,08: AG (1968)

10: 29,08-92,2: AC (1968)

20-50: ND

T0111 was recently rehabilitated.

Some shrubs on shoulders.

 

T0111 Tsumeb 92,2 126,0 D3630 (Onyati)-D3603

880

5: N.D.

6: 92,2-96,5: DE (1992)

7: 92,2-96,5: Cape13 (1990)

7: 96,5-126,0: SLF (1990)

8: 92,2-126,0: AG (1980)

9: 92,2-108,83: DE (1973)

9: 108,83-109,83: SLF (1990)

9: 109,83-126,0: DE (1973)

10: 92,2-108,83: AC (1968)

10: 108,83-109,83: AG (1968)

10: 109,83.126,0: AC (1968)

20-50: ND

T0111 was recently rehabilitated
T0111 Tsumeb 126,0 146,9 D3603- M0121 (Onathindi)

1 080

5: N.D.

6: N.D.

7: 126,0-146,9: SLF (1990)

8: 126,0-146,9: AG (1980)

9: 126,0-146,9: DE (1973)

10: 126,0-146,9: AC (1968)

20-50: ND

T0111 was recently rehabilitated
T0111 Tsumeb 146,9 147,3 M0121 (Onathindi)-D3629

1 380

7: 146,9-147,3: SLF (1990)

8: 146,9-147,3: AG (1980)

9: 146,9-147,3: DE (1973)

10: 146,9-147,3: AC (1968)

20-50: ND

T0111 was recently rehabilitated
T0111 Tsumeb 147,3 150,8 D3629-Reg.Border (Oshana) (southwest of Ondangwa)

2 200

5: N.D.

6: N.D.

7: 147,3-150,8: SLF (1990)

8: 147,3-150,8: AG (1980)

9: 147,3-150,8: DE (1973)

10: 147,3-150,8: AC (1968)

20-50: ND

T0111 was recently rehabilitated

Note to table 35:

LAYER CODE: Types from 00 - 55

10: bituminous surfacing (09:1.seal; 08:2.seal; 07:3.seal etc.)
20: basecourse; 30: subbase; 40: subgrade; 50: fill;
ND = No data or default (140 mm thickness).

CLASSIFICATION OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS:

PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: PAVEMENT SURFACING AND STRUCTURAL LAYERS: NAMIBIA ROADS AUTHORITY

SCP 19 mm Single seal and asphalt (Koffiemoer)
D13/7 Double seal: Aggregate size 13,2 mm and 6,7 mm

Layer Code

Layer Description

AC Asphalt Surfacing: Continuously graded
AG Asphalt Surfacing: Gap graded
AO Asphalt Surfacing: Open graded
AS Asphalt Surfacing: Semi-gap graded
AP Asphalt Surfacing: Porous (Drainage) asphlat
PCC Portland cement concrete layer
PED Prime layer, Emulsion and crusher dust
PES Prime layer, Emulsion and sand
Cape13 Cape Seal: 13 mm single seal with 1 slurry application
Cape19 Cape Seal: 19 mm single seal with 2 slurry applications
D19/9 Double seal: Aggregate size 19,0 mm and 9,5 mm
D19/6 Double seal: Aggregate size 19,0 mm and 6,7 mm
SLF Slurry: Fine grading
SLC Slurry: Coarse grading
SLM Slurry: Medium grading
RSS Slurry: Rapid setting coarse grading
SS Sand seal
ST1 Single seal: Stone size not available
ST2 Double seal: Stone size not available
T13D Single seal and crusher dust: Emulsion +13,2 mm aggregate and crusher dust
T13S Single seal and sand: Emulsion +13,2 mm aggregate and sand
T13G Single seal and grit (Grit = Washed crusher dust)
T13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate
T9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate
T7 Single seal 6,7 mm: Emulsion + 6,7 mm aggregate
L13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Latex Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate
L13G Single seal 13,2 mm and Grit: Latex Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate + Grit
L9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Latex Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate
L9G Single seal 9,5 mm and Grit: Latex Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate + Grit
H13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Hot bitumen + 13,2 mm aggregate
H9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Hot bitumen + 9,5 mm aggregate
H7 Single seal 6,7 mm: Hot bitumen + 6,7 mm aggregate
M13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Modified hot bitumen + 13,2 mm aggregate
M9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Modified hot bitumen + 9,5 mm aggregate
REJ Rejuvenator (e.g. MSP3)
DE Diluted emulsion
XX Unknown
G1 Graded crushed stone
G2 Graded crushed stone
G3 Graded crushed stone
G4 Crushed or natural gravel
G5 Natural gravel
G6 Natural gravel
G7 Gravel / Soil
G8 Gravel / Soil
G9 Gravel / Soil
G10 Gravel / Soil
C1 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C2 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C3 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C4 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
BEM Bitumen emulsion Modified gravel
BES Bitumen emulsion Stabilised gravel
ND No Data

PHOTOS:

Namibia.Owambo.Oshikoto.T0109_2.jpg (64107 bytes)Namibia.Owambo.Oshikoto.T0109_3.jpg (71655 bytes)

Photos 034 and 035: T0109: Otavi-Tsumeb: Bobos Mountains Pass: approx. 20 km south of Tsumeb Intersection: View to the North
Copyright of Photos Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.Owambo.Oshikoto.T0109.Bobos_1.JPG (105981 bytes)Namibia.Owambo.Oshikoto.T0109.Bobos_2.jpg (68349 bytes)Namibia.Owambo.Oshikoto.T0109.Bobos_3.jpg (55581 bytes)

Photo 036 to 038: T0109: Otavi-Tsumeb: Bobos Mountains Pass: Ch. 350 from Tsumeb Intersection: View to the South
Copyright of Photos Dr. Klaus Dierks

Namibia.Owambo.Oshikoto.T0109_1.jpg (87329 bytes)

Photo 039: T0109: Otavi-Tsumeb: Bobos Mountains Pass: 5 km south of Tsumeb Intersection: View to the South
Copyright of Photos Dr. Klaus Dierks

 

5.2.2   OSHANA REGION

 

The findings of the field trips for paved roads in the Oshana Region are shown in table 36:

 

TABLE 36: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: PAVED ROADS: OSHANA REGION

 

Road No. District

Start-End Km

Stations

EAADT

Pavement Type

Findings of the Field Survey

D3605 Ondangwa 0,0 1,2

* measured: 1,65 km

T0111 (Oluno)-End of Paved Section (D3606)

18

Paved Road (by Town Council Ondongwa)
M0092 Ondangwa 0,0 4,2 T0111 (Ondangwa)-D3636

3 700

7: N.D.

8: SLF (1990)

9: AG (1981)

10: AG (1969)

20: G4

30: G5/G4

40: G6/G7

50: G7

M0092 was recently rehabilitated.
M0092 Ondangwa 4,2 11,1 D3636-D3637

3 700

7: N.D.

8: SLF (1990)

9: AG (1981)

10: AG (1969)

20: G4

30: G4/G5

40: G7/G6

50: G7

M0092 was recently rehabilitated.
M0092 Ondangwa 11,1 18,1 D3637-Dist.Border (Oshakati)

3 700

7: N.D.

8: SLF (1990)

9: AG (1981)

10: AG (1969)

20: G4

30: G5/G4

40: G10

50: G7

M0092 was recently rehabilitated.
T0111 Ondangwa 150,8 151,8 Reg.Border (Oshikoto)-D3605

1 580

7: SLF (1990)

8: AG (1980)

9: DE (1973)

10: AC (1968)

20-50: ND

T0111 was recently rehabilitated.
T0111 Ondangwa 151,8 155,2 D3605-M0092 (Ondangwa)

1 510

7: SLF (1990)

8: AG (1980)

9: DE (1973)

10: AC (1968)

20-50: ND

T0111 was recently rehabilitated.
T0111 Ondangwa 155,2 182,8 M0092 (Ondangwa)-Reg.Border (Ohangwena)

1 450

10: SCP (1985)

20-50: ND

 
M0092 Oshakati 18,1 22,0 Dist.Border (Ondangwa)-D3638

3 700

9: AG (1981)

10: AG (1969)

20: G4

30: G4/G5M/G4

40: G10

50: G7

M0092 was recently rehabilitated.
M0092 Oshakati 22,0 32,7 D3638-D3607 (Oshakati)

3 700

8: N.D.

9: AG (1981)

10: AG (1969)

20: G4

30: G5

40: G10

50: G7/G6

M0092 was recently rehabilitated.
M0092 Oshakati 32,7 34,5 D3607 (Oshakati)-M0111 (Oshakati)

1 755

8: N.D.

9: SLF (1990)

10: SCP (1985)

20: G4

30: G5

40: G10

50: G8

M0092 was recently rehabilitated.
M0092 Oshakati 34,5 34,7 M0111 (Oshakati)-M0120 (Oshakati)

1 755

9: N.D.

10: SCP (1985)

20: G4

30: G5

40: G10

50: G8

M0092 was recently rehabilitated.
M0092 Oshakati 34,7 36,4 M0120 (Oshakati)-D3609

1 755

8: N.D. (to north-western end of Oshakati)

9:N.D.

10: SCP (1985)

20: G4

30: G5

40: G10

50: G8

Pavement in good order

Concrete edging works well

Shoulder cross sections needs to be re-shaped

M0092 Oshakati 36,4 48,0 D3609- Reg.Border (Omusati)

300

9: N.D.

10: SCP (1985)

20: G4

30: G5/G5M/G5

40: G10

50: G8/G7/G9/G8/G7/G9

Pavement in good order

Concrete edging works well

Shoulder cross sections needs to be re-shaped

M0111 Oshakati 0,0 18,8 M0092 (Oshakati)-Reg.Border (Omusati)

790

8:N.D.

9: SLF (1992)

10: Cape19

20-50: ND

 
M0120 Oshakati 0,0 6,3 M0092 (Oshakati)-End of Seal (Oshana Okatana)

1 010

ND

(not included in PMS)

 

Note to table 36:

LAYER CODE: Types from 00 - 55

10: bituminous surfacing (09:1.seal; 08:2.seal; 07:3.seal etc.)
20: basecourse; 30: subbase; 40: subgrade; 50: fill;
ND = No data or default (140 mm thickness).

CLASSIFICATION OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS:

PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: PAVEMENT SURFACING AND STRUCTURAL LAYERS: NAMIBIA ROADS AUTHORITY

SCP 19 mm Single seal and asphalt (Koffiemoer)
D13/7 Double seal: Aggregate size 13,2 mm and 6,7 mm

Layer Code

Layer Description

AC Asphalt Surfacing: Continuously graded
AG Asphalt Surfacing: Gap graded
AO Asphalt Surfacing: Open graded
AS Asphalt Surfacing: Semi-gap graded
AP Asphalt Surfacing: Porous (Drainage) asphlat
PCC Portland cement concrete layer
PED Prime layer, Emulsion and crusher dust
PES Prime layer, Emulsion and sand
Cape13 Cape Seal: 13 mm single seal with 1 slurry application
Cape19 Cape Seal: 19 mm single seal with 2 slurry applications
D19/9 Double seal: Aggregate size 19,0 mm and 9,5 mm
D19/6 Double seal: Aggregate size 19,0 mm and 6,7 mm
SLF Slurry: Fine grading
SLC Slurry: Coarse grading
SLM Slurry: Medium grading
RSS Slurry: Rapid setting coarse grading
SS Sand seal
ST1 Single seal: Stone size not available
ST2 Double seal: Stone size not available
T13D Single seal and crusher dust: Emulsion +13,2 mm aggregate and crusher dust
T13S Single seal and sand: Emulsion +13,2 mm aggregate and sand
T13G Single seal and grit (Grit = Washed crusher dust)
T13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate
T9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate
T7 Single seal 6,7 mm: Emulsion + 6,7 mm aggregate
L13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Latex Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate
L13G Single seal 13,2 mm and Grit: Latex Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate + Grit
L9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Latex Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate
L9G Single seal 9,5 mm and Grit: Latex Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate + Grit
H13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Hot bitumen + 13,2 mm aggregate
H9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Hot bitumen + 9,5 mm aggregate
H7 Single seal 6,7 mm: Hot bitumen + 6,7 mm aggregate
M13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Modified hot bitumen + 13,2 mm aggregate
M9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Modified hot bitumen + 9,5 mm aggregate
REJ Rejuvenator (e.g. MSP3)
DE Diluted emulsion
XX Unknown
G1 Graded crushed stone
G2 Graded crushed stone
G3 Graded crushed stone
G4 Crushed or natural gravel
G5 Natural gravel
G6 Natural gravel
G7 Gravel / Soil
G8 Gravel / Soil
G9 Gravel / Soil
G10 Gravel / Soil
C1 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C2 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C3 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C4 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
BEM Bitumen emulsion Modified gravel
BES Bitumen emulsion Stabilised gravel
ND No Data

 

5.2.3   OHANGWENA REGION

 

The findings of the field trips for paved roads in the Oshana Region are shown in table 37:

TABLE 37: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: PAVED ROADS: OHANGWENA REGION

 

Road No. District

Start-End Km

Stations

EAADT

Pavement Type

Findings of the Field Survey

D3608 Eenhana 0,0 3,5 T0111-Engela (End of Seal)

38

9: SCP (1993)

10-50: ND

Pavement has many cracks, the bitumen edges are breaking away at places.
M0110 Eenhana 0,0 18,7 T0111 (Omafo)-D3625/D3639

333

9: SCP (1998)

10: SCP(1992)

20-50: ND

Pavement is in good order, the bitumen edges are breaking away at places.
M0110 Eenhana 18,7 46,7 D3625/D3639-M0121 (Eenhana)

333

9: SCP (1998)

10: SCP(1992)

20-50: ND

Pavement is in good order, the bitumen edges are breaking away at places.

See: Photo 040

M0110 Eenhana 46,7 71,9 M0121 (Eenhana)-D3602 (Elundu Junction)

220

8: SLM (2001)

9: SCP (1998)

10: SCP(1992)

20-50: ND

Single Layer Seal is resealed by a Medium Grading Slurry layer: Pavement is in good order

 

T0111 Eenhana 182,8 189,4 Reg.Border (Oshana)-D3638 (Ongha)

1 480

10: SCP(1985)

20-50: ND

Under design to be rehabilitated
T0111 Eenhana 189,4 205,8 D3638 (Ongha)-M0110 (Onuno)

1 480

10: SCP(1985)

20: G4

30: G4

40: G5/G6/G7

50: G6/G8/G9

Under design to be rehabilitated
T0111 Eenhana 205,8 208,8 M0110 (Onuno)-M0120

1 440

10: SCP(1985)

20: G4

30: G4

40: G5/G8

50: G6

Under design to be rehabilitated

 

T0111 Eenhana 208,8 211,2 M0120-D3608 (Omafo)

1 450

10: SCP(1985)

20: G4

30: G4

40: G4/G5/G7

50: G7

Under design to be rehabilitated
T0111 Eenhana 211,2 215,0 D3608 (Omafo)-Oshikango (Angola Border)

1 480

10: SCP(1985)

20: G4

30: G4

40: G5/G6

50: G7

Under design to be rehabilitated

Note: to table 37:

LAYER CODE: Types from 00 - 55

10: bituminous surfacing (09:1.seal; 08:2.seal; 07:3.seal etc.)
20: basecourse; 30: subbase; 40: subgrade; 50: fill;
ND = No data or default (140 mm thickness).

CLASSIFICATION OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS:

PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: PAVEMENT SURFACING AND STRUCTURAL LAYERS: NAMIBIA ROADS AUTHORITY

SCP 19 mm Single seal and asphalt (Koffiemoer)
D13/7 Double seal: Aggregate size 13,2 mm and 6,7 mm

Layer Code

Layer Description

AC Asphalt Surfacing: Continuously graded
AG Asphalt Surfacing: Gap graded
AO Asphalt Surfacing: Open graded
AS Asphalt Surfacing: Semi-gap graded
AP Asphalt Surfacing: Porous (Drainage) asphlat
PCC Portland cement concrete layer
PED Prime layer, Emulsion and crusher dust
PES Prime layer, Emulsion and sand
Cape13 Cape Seal: 13 mm single seal with 1 slurry application
Cape19 Cape Seal: 19 mm single seal with 2 slurry applications
D19/9 Double seal: Aggregate size 19,0 mm and 9,5 mm
D19/6 Double seal: Aggregate size 19,0 mm and 6,7 mm
SLF Slurry: Fine grading
SLC Slurry: Coarse grading
SLM Slurry: Medium grading
RSS Slurry: Rapid setting coarse grading
SS Sand seal
ST1 Single seal: Stone size not available
ST2 Double seal: Stone size not available
T13D Single seal and crusher dust: Emulsion +13,2 mm aggregate and crusher dust
T13S Single seal and sand: Emulsion +13,2 mm aggregate and sand
T13G Single seal and grit (Grit = Washed crusher dust)
T13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate
T9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate
T7 Single seal 6,7 mm: Emulsion + 6,7 mm aggregate
L13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Latex Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate
L13G Single seal 13,2 mm and Grit: Latex Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate + Grit
L9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Latex Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate
L9G Single seal 9,5 mm and Grit: Latex Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate + Grit
H13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Hot bitumen + 13,2 mm aggregate
H9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Hot bitumen + 9,5 mm aggregate
H7 Single seal 6,7 mm: Hot bitumen + 6,7 mm aggregate
M13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Modified hot bitumen + 13,2 mm aggregate
M9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Modified hot bitumen + 9,5 mm aggregate
REJ Rejuvenator (e.g. MSP3)
DE Diluted emulsion
XX Unknown
G1 Graded crushed stone
G2 Graded crushed stone
G3 Graded crushed stone
G4 Crushed or natural gravel
G5 Natural gravel
G6 Natural gravel
G7 Gravel / Soil
G8 Gravel / Soil
G9 Gravel / Soil
G10 Gravel / Soil
C1 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C2 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C3 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C4 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
BEM Bitumen emulsion Modified gravel
BES Bitumen emulsion Stabilised gravel
ND No Data

PHOTO:

Owambo.Ohangwena.M0110_7.jpg (56307 bytes)

Photo 040: M0110: Onuno-Eenhana: 10 km west of Eenhana: View to the East
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

 

5.2.4   OMUSATI REGION

 

The findings of the field trips for paved roads in the Omusati Region are shown in table 38:

 

TABLE 38: FINDINGS OF THE FIELD SURVEY: PAVED ROADS: OMUSATI REGION

 

Road No. District

Start-End Km

Stations

EAADT

Pavement Type

Findings of the Field Survey

D3611 Outapi

0,0 5,5

MR92 (Oshikuku)-End of Seal

57

999: SCP (1997)

20: G6

30: ND

40: G6

50: G10

Pavement is fine: No problems.

 

D3618 Outapi

0,0 4,6

MR92-Ruacana Town (End of Seal)

2 (?)

10: SCP(1984)

20-50: ND

Pavement is fine: No problems
D3621 Outapi 0,0 2,6 MR92-Olifa (End of Seal)

100

10: SCP(1985)

50: ND

Pavement is fair: Some crocodile cracks
D3623 Outapi 0,0 1,6 MR92 (between Oshikuku and Outapi)-Road End (Ongongo)

60

10: SCP (1983)

20: N.D.

30: N.D.

40: N.D.

50: N.D.

Pavement needs attention: potholes, broken edges, guard rail at end of seal at Ongongo heavily damaged.
M0092 Outapi

48,0 54,8

Reg.Border (Oshana)-Elim

339

9: N.D.

10: SCP(1985)

20: G4

30: G5

40: G10

50: G7/G8

Pavement in good order

Concrete edging works well

Shoulder cross sections need to be re-shaped

See Photo: 41

M0092 Outapi

54,8 60,8

Elim-Oshikuku

339

9: N.D.

10: SCP(1985)

20: G4

30: G5

40: G10

50: G8

Pavement in good order

Concrete edging works well

Shoulder cross sections need to be re-shaped

M0092 Outapi

60,8 64,4

Oshikuku-D3615

339

9: N.D.

10: SCP(1985)

20: G4

30: G5

40: G10

50: G8

Pavement in good order

Concrete edging works well

Shoulder cross sections need to be re-shaped

M0092 Outapi

64,4 65,4

D3615-D3611

339

9: N.D.

10: SCP(1982)

20: G4

30: G5/G5M

40: G10

50: G8

Pavement in good order

Concrete edging works well

Shoulder cross sections need to be re-shaped

M0092 Outapi

65,4 92,5

D3611-D3623

339

9: N.D.

10: SCP(1982)

20: G4

30: G4/G5/G5M

40: G10/G5/G6

50: G8

Pavement in good order

Concrete edging works well

Shoulder cross sections need to be re-shaped

M0092 Outapi

92,5 122,3

D3623-D3608 (Anamulenge Access)

339

8: N.D.

9: DE (1992)

10: SCP(1981)

20: G4

30: G4/G5/G5M

40: G5/G6/G7/

G7M/G8

50: G8/G10

Pavement in good order

Concrete edging works well

Shoulder cross sections need to be re-shaped

M0092 Outapi

122,3 122,7

D3608 (Anamulenge Access)-M0123 (Outapi)

339

9: N.D.

10: SCP(1981)

20: G4

30: G5

40: G7

50: G8/G10

Pavement in good order

Concrete edging works well (until north-western exit of Outapi)

Shoulder cross sections need to be re-shaped

M0092 Outapi

122,7 161,9

M0123 (Outapi)-Olupaka-Mahenene-D3616

339

10: SCP(1982)

20: G4

30: G5/G5M

40: ND

50: G10

Pavement needs some attention with some potholes and concrete edging to be provided to the Intersection with D3616
M0092 Outapi

161,9 164,7

D3616-D3627 (Calueque-Mahenene Border Post)

339

10: SCP(1982)

20-50: ND

Pavement in good order
M0092 Outapi

164,7 183,3

D3627 (Calueque-Mahenene Border Post) -D3621 (Olifa Access)

3 700

9: DE (1995)

10: SCP(1981)

20-50: ND

Pavement in good order
M0092 Outapi

183,3 186,6

D3621 (Olifa Access)-MR67

80

9: DE (1995)

10: SCP(1981)

20-50: ND

Pavement in good order
M0092 Outapi

186,6 191,9

MR67-Ruacana Town Access

60

8: DE (1995)

9: DE (1982)

10: ST2 (1968)

20-50: ND

Pavement in good order
M0092 Outapi

191,9 194,7

Ruacana Town Access -D3618

60

9: DE (1982)

10: ST2 (1968)

20-50: ND

Pavement in good order
M0092 Outapi 194,7 207,7 D3618-D3628 (Access to Ruacana Falls and Angola Border Post at Ruacana)

40

8: DE (1995)

9: DE (1982)

10: ST2 (1968)

20-50: ND

Pavement in good order

See: Photo 42

M0092 Outapi 207,7 208,0 D3628 (Access to Ruacana Falls and Angola Border Post at Ruacana)-End of Seal (Hippo Pool)(Start of D3700)

25

8: DE (1995)

9: DE (1982)

10: ST2 (1968)

20-50: ND

Pavement in good order

See: Photos 42 to 45

M0111 Outapi 18,8 23,3 Reg.Border (Oshana)-D3615

790

9: SLF (1992)

10: Cape19

20-50: ND

Pavement in fair order.

The bitumen edges are breaking away dangerously at many places.

Many road signs and guide stones have been removed.

M0111 Outapi 23,3 38,2 D3615-D3619

790

9: SLF (1992)

10: Cape19

20-50: ND

Pavement in fair order.

The bitumen edges are breaking away dangerously at many places.

Many road signs and guide stones have been removed.

M0111 Outapi 38,2 69,4 D3619-D3626 (Okahao)

790

9: SLF (1992)

10: Cape19

20-50: ND

Pavement in fair order.

The bitumen edges are breaking away dangerously at many places.

Many road signs and guide stones have been removed.

M0111 Outapi 69,4 70,2 D3626 (Okahao)-D3635 (Okahao)

790

9: SLF (1992)

10: Cape19

20-50: ND

Pavement in fair order.

The bitumen edges are breaking away dangerously at many places.

Many road signs and guide stones have been removed.

M0111 Outapi 70,2 70,8 D3635 (Okahao)-MR122 (Okahao)

790

9: SLF (1992)

10: Cape19

20-50: ND

Pavement in fair order.

The bitumen edges are breaking away dangerously at many places.

Many road signs and guide stones have been removed.

M0111 Outapi 70,8 71,3 MR122 (Okahao)-MR123 (Okahao)

790

9: SLF (1992)

10: Cape19

20-50: ND

Pavement in fair order.

The bitumen edges are breaking away dangerously at many places.

Many road signs and guide stones have been removed.

Note to table 38:

LAYER CODE: Types from 00 - 55

10: bituminous surfacing (09:1.seal; 08:2.seal; 07:3.seal etc.)
20: basecourse; 30: subbase; 40: subgrade; 50: fill;
ND = No data or default (140 mm thickness).

CLASSIFICATION OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS:

PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: PAVEMENT SURFACING AND STRUCTURAL LAYERS: NAMIBIA ROADS AUTHORITY

SCP 19 mm Single seal and asphalt (Koffiemoer)
D13/7 Double seal: Aggregate size 13,2 mm and 6,7 mm

Layer Code

Layer Description

AC Asphalt Surfacing: Continuously graded
AG Asphalt Surfacing: Gap graded
AO Asphalt Surfacing: Open graded
AS Asphalt Surfacing: Semi-gap graded
AP Asphalt Surfacing: Porous (Drainage) asphlat
PCC Portland cement concrete layer
PED Prime layer, Emulsion and crusher dust
PES Prime layer, Emulsion and sand
Cape13 Cape Seal: 13 mm single seal with 1 slurry application
Cape19 Cape Seal: 19 mm single seal with 2 slurry applications
D19/9 Double seal: Aggregate size 19,0 mm and 9,5 mm
D19/6 Double seal: Aggregate size 19,0 mm and 6,7 mm
SLF Slurry: Fine grading
SLC Slurry: Coarse grading
SLM Slurry: Medium grading
RSS Slurry: Rapid setting coarse grading
SS Sand seal
ST1 Single seal: Stone size not available
ST2 Double seal: Stone size not available
T13D Single seal and crusher dust: Emulsion +13,2 mm aggregate and crusher dust
T13S Single seal and sand: Emulsion +13,2 mm aggregate and sand
T13G Single seal and grit (Grit = Washed crusher dust)
T13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate
T9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate
T7 Single seal 6,7 mm: Emulsion + 6,7 mm aggregate
L13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Latex Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate
L13G Single seal 13,2 mm and Grit: Latex Emulsion + 13,2 mm aggregate + Grit
L9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Latex Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate
L9G Single seal 9,5 mm and Grit: Latex Emulsion + 9,5 mm aggregate + Grit
H13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Hot bitumen + 13,2 mm aggregate
H9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Hot bitumen + 9,5 mm aggregate
H7 Single seal 6,7 mm: Hot bitumen + 6,7 mm aggregate
M13 Single seal 13,2 mm: Modified hot bitumen + 13,2 mm aggregate
M9 Single seal 9,5 mm: Modified hot bitumen + 9,5 mm aggregate
REJ Rejuvenator (e.g. MSP3)
DE Diluted emulsion
XX Unknown
G1 Graded crushed stone
G2 Graded crushed stone
G3 Graded crushed stone
G4 Crushed or natural gravel
G5 Natural gravel
G6 Natural gravel
G7 Gravel / Soil
G8 Gravel / Soil
G9 Gravel / Soil
G10 Gravel / Soil
C1 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C2 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C3 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
C4 Cemented crushed stone or gravel
BEM Bitumen emulsion Modified gravel
BES Bitumen emulsion Stabilised gravel
ND No Data

PHOTOS:

Owambo.Omusati.M0092_3.jpg (55676 bytes)

Photo 041: M0092: Outapi-End of Seal (Kunene River: Hippo Pool): 10 km east of End of Seal: View to the West
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

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Photos 42 to 45: M0092: Outapi-End of Seal (Kunene River: Hippo Pool): 1 km east of End of Seal: View to the West
Copyright of Photos Dr. Klaus Dierks

 

5.3   CONSULTATIONS WITH REGIONAL COUNCILS, GOVERNORS AND OTHER COMMUNITY LEADERS

 

5.3.1   OSHIKOTO REGION: Problems and Requests

 

Discussions with the Governor of the Oshikoto Region: Mr. Filo Kamanja: Tsumeb

  1. Upgrading of D3629 from T0111 (Onethindi) to Olukonda
  2. Upgrading of d3603 from T0111 (Onathinge) to Okankolo

 

5.3.2  OSHANA REGION: Problems and Requests

 

Discussions with the Governor of the Oshana Region: Mr. Clemence Kashupulwa:

Requests for upgradings:

bullet

Upgrading of D3607 to Ompundja, at least for 2 km in Oshakati Town

bullet

Upgrading of M0120 from the end of seal at Oshana Okatana to Endola and further construction of M0120 to the Intersection with 0111 (Ongha)

bullet

Upgrading of D3609 from M0092 (Oshakati) to Omungwelume

bullet

Labour-Based construction efforts are very much supported by the communities and have to be expanded. L.B. constructed roads must be maintained by L.B. based maintenance techniques, based on community activities. Appropriate community training for L.B. construction and maintenance must form an inherent part of the L.B. activity chain.

 

5.3.3   OHANGWENA REGION: Problems and Requests

 

Discussions with the Governor of the Ohagwena Region: Mr. Billy Mwaningange and Councillor Heita:

Requests for upgradings and general improvements:

bulletUpgrading of M0110 from Elundu Junction to Okongo to paved standard (Okongo will be proclaimed as a town shortly). This upgrading will promote communal agriculture as the main economic activity in the Ohangwena Region.
bulletUgrading of M0121 from Oshigambo to Eenhana to paved standard.
bulletConstruction of the so far not built M0120 from Omafu to Endola and upgrading from the entire main road from Omafu to the Oshana Okatana to paved standard.
bulletUpgrading of D3608 from Engela to Okalongo to paved standard.
bulletThe construction of more feeder roads to important community centres like schools, clinics etc.
bulletCommunity participation in the maintenance of especially labour-based constructed roads. The RCC does not play a very significant role in this regard.

 

5.3.4   OMUSATI REGION: Problems and Requests

 

Discussions with the Governor of the Omusart Region: Mr. Sakky Kanjone and the former Governor of the Omusati Region, Councillor Shilongo as well as the entire Regional Council and traditional headmen:

 

Requests for upgradings and general improvements:

bulletUpgrading of M0123 from M0092 (Outapi) to Tsandi and Okahao to paved standard.
bulletUpgrading of the L.B. constructed D3608 from Anamulenge to Okalongo (is currently in progress).
bulletUpgrading of the remaining 23,3 km unpaved D3611 from Oshikuku to Okalongo to paved standard.
bulletThe L.B. built D3619 to Onaanda should be gravelled (is on the programme).
bulletThe shoulder cross sections of M0092 should be re-instated according to specifications and concrete edging should be provided between Outapi and Ruacana.
bulletUpgrading of D3615 between Oshikuku and M0111via Elim to paved standard (D3615 was recently upgraded to all-weather standard and gravelled with good quality calcrete gravel).
bulletD3616 between Epalela and Onesi should be re-gravelled and widened.
bulletD3633 from Tsandi to Omugulu-g’Ombashe should be upgraded to all-weather standard (is currently in progress).

  

5.4   GENERAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE ROADS ASSESSMENT

 

  1. The realisation of the standards and specifications of the "Roads Authority: Contract No RA/MC-MRP/01-2002: Construction and Maintenance of Roads in Namibia" and the execution of these objectives by the RCC have to be improved. The Namibia Roads Authority has apparently problems to appropriately guarantee the correct realisation of these objectives. Therefore it is strongly recommended to create a "engineering policing mechanism" to appropriately control the activities of the RCC. The major reason for this is the weak manpower position in the regions, especially in the Study Area. The existing engineering and technical manpower is not sufficient to guarantee an optimised quality and production control over the RCC and other contractors. If for financial and other manpower related reasons the RA is not able to improve the situation, use should be made of experienced road consulting engineers who could function as a form of "Special Quality and Production Control Police" to support the Road Authority.
  2. One problem for the road assessment was that many of the PMS data for paved roads in the Study Area were outdated and only completed until the beginning of the 1990s. Many newly constructed or rehabilitated paved roads are still not incorporated into the PMS Data Base.
  3. There are many outdated and even missing traffic counts into the Traffic Count Data Base.
  4. For a traffic load of EAADT > 100 all newly constructed paved roads should obtain concrete edging during the construction period for all those sections which are situated in populated areas.
  5. The maintenance of bitumen edges of existing paved roads still remains a major problem in all populated areas.
  6. Dangerous (and illegal) speed traps on T0111 and M0092 must be legalised by proper speed restriction signs (10 km/h and not 60 km/h because these speed breakers can only safely negotiated with 10 km/h).
  7. The "Roads Authority: Contract No RA/MC-MRP/01-2002: Construction and Maintenance of Roads in Namibia" does not make provision (there is no pay item) for the repair, maintenance and up-keeping of rest-places which in many instances are in a dilapidated state.
  8. It came to our notice that at a grand scale the weigh bridge at Onuno is by-passed by illegally loaded trucks which use district roads 3609 and 3625 between Oshakati resp. Ondangwa and Oshikango instead.
  9. No drainage problems were observed on all travelled roads in the Oshikoto, Ohangwena, Oshana and Omusati Regions during the rainy season 2001/2002.
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