9 APPENDIX 3: STUDY OF FUTURE PORT FACILITIES FOR NAMIBIA

This Appendix includes (i) a Project Description for the Study of Future Port Facilities for Namibia and (ii) Draft Terms of Reference.

9.1 PROJECT P-GM-1: STUDY OF FUTURE PORT FACILITIES

9.1.1 DESCRIPTION

The purpose of the study is to:

(i) Identify possible options for constructing or developing port facilities to cater for the emerging Namibian fishing industry and the requirements of providing Coast Guards and ancillary services and also for the possibility of replacing Walvis Bay as the main port for the movement of commercial goods;

(ii) Identify a best solution including a costed, phased development programme allowing for the upgrading of Lüderitz and/or the establishment of a new fisheries port to begin with, to possibly be extended later to cater for the commercial needs of the country;

(iii) State, in detail, the economic and other consequences of providing the new port facilities and the management structure which would be required.

9.1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT

Presently, only the small port of Lüderitz is under the direct control of the Republic of Namibia. Lüderitz is not well located to serve the country's export and import needs or to facilitate exploitation of Namibia's rich fishing resources, which are mainly to be found off the northern half of the coastline. Walvis Bay, which is the only existing deep-water port, and handles almost all of Namibia's seaborne traffic at present, is controlled by South Africa. Although United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR 432 of 1978) states that Walvis Bay should be reintegrated with Namibia, its future is uncertain.

In view of this, it can be expected that the possibility has to be investigated what the consequences are for Namibia if new port facilities will be created in order to reap maximum benefit from the fishing resources and to be assured of full access to a deep-water port. The purpose of the proposed study would be to provide the government with the basis for formulating a strategy in this regard.

A study with essentially the same focus has been initiated by the former colonial administration during 1989, and a commission was appointed under the chairmanship of the former Secretary for Economic Affairs, omitting the Department of Transport which is responsible for the Namibian ports. The study is divided into three phases: the first would identify the requirements, the second would focus on the marine environment and other site investigations, and the third phase would include the engineering studies. In December 1989, the commission appointed a consultant (a South African consultant) to carry a part of the second phase. The first and third phases were not investigated and analysed as yet. A report for parts of the second phase has been submitted for approval by the consultant in the mean time [38].

The proposed study is envisaged to continue the work that has been initiated by the former colonial administration and finalised under the auspices of the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication and to allow the Government of the Republic of Namibia to exercise full control over this activity.

9.1.3 THE FUTURE PORT FACILITIES STUDY

The study would cover:

- Analysis of requirements encompassing the needs of the
   commercial sector and the fishing and oil industries;

- Scenario analysis; an evaluation of alternative scenarios in
   respect of the status of Walvis Bay;

- Analysis of requirements, and associated demand for port
   services and facilities, as a result Namibia becoming party
   to international conventions in the maritime field and the
   possible impact of a 200 mile exclusive economic zone;

- Engineering studies to determine the technical feasibility and
   the cost of various options. These studies would include, but
   not be restricted to, the following:

* Hydrographic surveys and other
   investigations of the marine
   environment of Robert Harbour and
   selected areas of Lüderitz Harbour,
   and other selected sites along the
   coast where future oil terminals,
   fishing and/or commercial ports may
   be developed.

* Feasibility study into the possibility of
   installing separate oil terminals.

* Master Plan for the development of
   Lüderitz and sites north of
   Swakopmund in the medium and
   long-term, including the required
   onshore and hinterland infrastructure.

* Each engineering study will include
   an environmental impact assessment
   for each proposed development;

- Analysis to identify the best development option and strategy,
   including options for phased programmes, based on a
   least-cost analysis as well as the results of the scenario
   analysis;

- Analysis of the institutional aspects and the financing of the
   port facilities. The study should evaluate alternative ways of
   operating the port and associated possibilities for mobilising
   capital relying on the private and public sectors, as well as
   donor agencies and development banks;

- Impact analysis: An evaluation of the effects of the
   recommended option and strategy on the overall
   macro-economic performance of the country during and after
   implementation, considering alternative modes of financing,
   and the performance of specific sectors of the economy.

9.1.4 PROJECT COSTS AND IMPLEMENTATION

The project is urgent and is recommended for implementation commencing as soon as possible after the funding has been assured (priority 1) (priority rating: see above). The study is proposed to be carried out by a team of consultants, to include expertise in marine engineering, port engineering, geotechnology, hydrography, transport economics, financial analysis, decision analysis, macro economics and port operations. It will require about 18 months for its completion. The costs are estimated to be US $ 1,5 million. Draft Terms of Reference are following in the next section of this memorandum.

9.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE TO CONSULTING ENGINEERS

9.2.1 INSTRUCTION TO TENDERERS

(Not provided here, but is available by Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication)

9.2.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE

9.2.2.1 INTRODUCTION

During the period of rule by South Africa, very little development of port facilities took place in Namibia, with the exception of Walvis Bay. In addition, the majority of imports and exports were transported by rail from and to South Africa. The fishing industry was largely unregulated during this time, with most of the profits going to offshore fleets or to processing plants in Walvis Bay.

Only the small port of Lüderitz is under the direct control of Namibia. Lüderitz is not well located to serve the country's export and import needs and to enable the exploitation of Namibia's rich fishing resources, which are mainly to be found off the northern half of the coastline. Walvis Bay, which is the only deep-water port, and handles almost all of Namibia's seaborne traffic at present, is controlled by South Africa. Although United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 432 of 1978 states that Walvis Bay should be reintegrated with Namibia, its future is uncertain.

In view of this, the Government of Namibia would prefer to explore the consequences of new port facilities to reap maximum benefit from the fishing resources and to be assured of full access to a deep-water port. The purpose of the proposed study would be to provide the Government with the basis for formulating a strategy in this regard.

A study with essentially the same focus was initiated by the previous colonial administration and a commission was appointed under the chairmanship of the Secretary for Economic Affairs. The study was divided into three phases: The first would identify the requirements, the second would focus on the marine environment and other site investigations and the third phase would include the engineering studies.

The study covered by these Terms of Reference will continue the work that was been initiated by the previous administration, and allow the Government of the Republic of Namibia to exercise full control over this activity.

9.2.2.2 OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the study are to:

(i) Identify possible options for constructing or developing port facilities to cater for the emerging Namibian fishing industry and the requirements of providing coast guard and ancillary services and also for the possibility of replacing Walvis Bay as the main port for the movement of commercial goods.

(ii) Identify a best solution including a costed phased development programme allowing for the upgrading of Lüderitz and/ or the establishment of a new fisheries port to begin with, to possibly be extended later to cater for the commercial needs of the country.

(iii) State, in detail, the economic and other consequences of providing the new port facilities and the management structure which would be required.

(iv) Formulate a strategy for the development of new port facilities based on all relevant aspects and facts.

The study will consider three main options for developing port facilities:

(i) Only a fishing port, to serve the in- and offshore fishing industry, with ancillary services.

(ii) A joint fishing and commercial port, with the commercial port being able to serve coastal and overseas traffic.

(iii) A phased development programme with a fishing port constructed initially and the facilities later expanded to be able to serve as a commercial port.

Other minor options shall also be considered, for example the installation of a single-point mooring to handle liquid fuel products.

9.2.2.3 SCOPE OF WORKS

The Consultant shall carry out all works necessary to reach the objectives listed above. The Scope of Works shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

9.2.2.3.1 TRADE FORECASTS

(i) Obtain all available data on traffic for the previous five years, including distribution by commodity and mode of transport.

(ii) Forecast traffic in 1993, 2000 and 2010, based on various scenarios for the development of the national economy.

(iii) Obtain all available data on the present size of the fishing fleet and in- and offshore fishing industry, and forecast size of the industry in 1993, 2000 and 2010.

(iv) As item (iii) above, but with reference to all other offshore activities (diamond mining, gas, sea grass etc.).

9.2.2.3.2 FORECASTS OF DEMANDS FOR PORT FACILITIES

Based on the traffic forecasts identified above, the Consultant shall predict the demand for all types of port facilities in 1993, 2000 and 2010.

The forecasts shall consider the following external factors:

- Walvis Bay remaining in present status;

- Walvis Bay becoming unavailable for use by Namibia;

- Walvis Bay being reintegrated with Namibia;

- Land border with South Africa being closed;

- Developments in Angola leading to the possibility of land
   traffic with Angola and import and export traffic routed
   through the Port of Namibe;

- Development of roads in Caprivi leading to increased road
   traffic to and from SADCC-member states;

- Development of roads through Botswana
   (Gobabis-Buitepos/Mamuno-Sekoma) leading to reduced
   transport costs and increased road traffic between Namibia,
   Botswana and South Africa;

- Development of railways to connect the Namibian system
   with the SADCC-network, leading to increased transit traffic
   through Namibia.

The study will also examine the best mode of transport for the various commodities (e.g. container, general cargo, bulk, tanker, etc.).

9.2.2.3.3 REQUIREMENTS FOR MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

The Consultant shall consider the requirements arising from Namibia becoming signatory to international conventions, e.g. in respect of pollution control and prevention, and rescue operations, and the associated demand for port services and facilities. The need for protecting the fishing resources shall also be taken into account, as well as the implications of the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone declared by the Government of Namibia.

9.2.2.3.4 SITING STUDY

All existing information shall be examined, and the Consultant shall visit Lüderitz and the coast between Swakopmund and Möwe Bay. On the basis of this information a report shall be prepared outlining the possibilities for constructing port facilities at various locations.

9.2.2.3.5 ENGINEERING STUDY

Following consideration of the reports prepared in above sections, the Consultant will be instructed to carry out a detailed Engineering Study of various projects. It is expected that these projects may include:

(i) A Master Plan for the development of Lüderitz.

(ii) The construction of a new port at some point between Swakopmund and Cape Cross, possibly in phases.

(iii) The provision of an oil terminal. This may be associated with (ii) above, but could also be an independent single-point mooring located near Swakopmund. A small terminal may also be installed at Lüderitz.

The studies shall include all services required to provide definite outline plans and, where relevant, phased plans for development at each location, together with cost estimates and an environment impact assessment. The services may include:

(i) Prediction of design wave height using available data and (if necessary) commissioning a wave prediction study from a specialist organisation.

(ii) Mathematical modelling of waves within harbours.

(iii) Hydrographic and topographic surveys, including current measurement, and beach profiles for siltation studies.

(iv) Seabed investigations using vibrocoring and push sampling.

(v) Siltation study, including mathematical modelling, if required.

(vi) Outline master plan of facilities, including zoning for various facilities.

(vii) Outline designs of all structures (including services) to a stage sufficient for accurate cost estimates.

(viii) Details of major equipment required (e.g. cranes, loaders etc.).

(ix) Clear recommendations on the throughput that the proposed facilities could achieve (e.g. in the case of commercial berths, the tonnage per year, or in the case of commercial or fishing berths the number of vessels that could be serviced and the tonnage of fish that could be offloaded.

(x) Details of any changes in basic infrastructure that may be required as a result of the proposed development (e.g. roads, rails, water supply and power supply).

(xi) Cost estimates for all proposed facilities, including equipment and changes to basic infrastructure. The cost estimate shall be split up into the recommended development phases. Details of the basic rates used in the preparation of the estimates shall be given.

(xii) An environmental impact assessment, including a full on-site field assessment of the site to characterise the current ecological resources present with particular reference to identification of environmentally sensitive areas or species. The possibility of adverse impacts resulting from the implementation of the proposed developments will be assessed with respect to faunal, floral and other ecological resources associated with the site. If deemed necessary, mitigation plans will be developed.

9.2.2.3.6 FINANCING ALTERNATIVES

Alternative financing arrangements shall be explored, including private and public sources, donor assistance and loans from development financing institutions.The implications for operations and the appropriate framework for operating the port shall be assessed. Special attention shall be paid to the revenue potential provided by the fishing industry and the possibility of using joint ventures. In this context, implications for training, manpower development and the operations of coast guard and ancillary services shall be identified and assessed. Attention shall also be given to the potential for providing services to the off-shore fishing industry, including the format for operating these services, and the implications thereof for the mobilisation of finance.

9.2.2.3.7 ECONOMIC STUDY

As part of the economic studies, (i) the economic viability of different options shall be determined, (ii) the overall financial performance of the prospective port operator shall be assessed, (iii) the financial implications of alternative financing arrangements shall be studied and evaluated and (iv) a suitable tariff shall be identified and evaluated.

In view of the potential size of the project in relation to the overall economy of Namibia, an impact analysis shall also be carried out to identify and trace possible macro-economic effects considering alternative modes of financing. This refers, for example, to implications for other investments, the labour market and the price level.

9.2.2.3.8 SCENARIO ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY

Different scenarios shall be identified for the future status of Walvis Bay. A methodology shall be developed for how to formulate strategies for the development of port facilities considering jointly the results of the scenario analysis and the economic analyses. A recommended strategy shall be formulated, based on this methodology and the results of the analyses.

9.2.2.3.9 OUTLINE DESIGN

Following review of the previous studies, the Consultant shall be instructed to prepare outline designs for selected schemes. The outline designs shall be in sufficient detail to enable the Client to review the design, and invite bids for detailed design without further review. The designs shall include:

- A site plan on a scale of 1:500;

- Plans on a scale of 1:50 of all buildings;

- Schematics of all services;

- Specifications for all facilities, including operational
   requirements, design loadings, etc.;

- Details of principal materials;

- Specifications for principal items of plant and equipment;

- Summary of all available information (e.g. surveys, soils
   information, wind and wave data);

- Outline design of any additions required to the basic
   infrastructure (e.g. road, rail, water supply and power supply);

- Revision of cost estimates in the light of the outline design.

The Consultant shall also give details of any further studies that he considers shall be necessary (e.g. physical model studies, siltation study).

The Consultant shall also prepare Terms of Reference for Consultancy Services to cover detailed design and site supervision of the selected schemes.

9.2.2.3.10 ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMPANY FOR PORT OPERATIONS

The Consultant shall provide advice on the actions required in order to set up an organisation for the operations of the facility, here termed a company. The work shall include:

- A draft constitution for the company;

- Draft regulations (bye laws) for the company;

- A management structure;

- Recommendations concerning immediate requirements for
   recruitment and training;

- Identification of need for management information systems,
  including soft- and hardware;

- Proposals for a tariff structure;

- Proposals for future studies into operations of the new port
  and training;

- An identification of the regulatory framework and drafting of
   required legislation.

9.2.2.4 PROJECT STAFFING

The Consultant will be expected to utilise local expertise where possible and appropriate. This is to ensure that regional perspectives and imperatives are embodied in the Study Report and that any follow-on work directly related to the results of this Study can confidently be carried out by local personnel and local consultants.

9.2.2.5 TIMING AND REPORTING

9.2.2.5.1 INCEPTION REPORT

Six weeks from the start of the Study, the Consultant shall submit an Inception Report (12 copies) outlining his initial findings and proposed future work plan. The report shall identify all site investigations that are proposed.

9.2.2.5.2 PROGRESS REPORTS

The Consultant shall submit a monthly Progress Report (6 copies) highlighting progress accomplished during the past month, problems encountered and projections of next month's work plan.

9.2.2.5.3 DRAFT REPORT

The Consultant shall submit the following Draft Report (20 copies) within the time stated:

(i) Traffic Forecasts, including the work detailed in above three
     sections: within 5 months of the start of the Study.

(ii) Siting Study: within 5 months of the start of the Study.

(iii) Engineering Study: within 8 months of instructions
      concerning the scope of the Study, but not less than 13
      months from the start of the Study.

(iv) Financing Study: within 13 months of the start of the Study.

(v) Economic Study: within 14 months of the start of the Study.

(vi) Scenario and Strategy Study: within 15 months of the start
      of the Study.

(vii) Report on the establishment of a company for port
       operations: within 13 months of the start of the Study.

9.2.2.5.4 FINAL REPORT

The Consultant shall modify the Draft Report to take account of comments made by the Client. The Final Report (30 copies) shall be submitted within one month of the receipt of the comments on the Draft Report.

The Consultant shall have a senior engineer in Windhoek for the duration of the Study, who shall be responsible for maintaining close liaison with the Client.

The Team Leader for each section of the Study shall hold discussions with the Client in the early stages of the Study. The Team Leader shall also be responsible for maintaining contact with the Client during the Study, and taking note of all comments made by the Client.

The Team Leader shall also attend meetings with the Client after presentation of the Draft Reports.

ANNEXURE A: Format for Fee Proposal

(Not provided here, but available by Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication).

9.3 SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE MARITIME INFORMATION

The coast of the Republic of Namibia is a desert region, and has no resident population except at the port towns of Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Lüderitz and Henties Bay, the mining town of Oranjemund as well as some smaller isolated settlements like Wlotzka's Baken, Cape Cross, Terrace Bay and alike. Consequently there is only limited information available on the coast of Namibia.

The only natural harbours on the Namibian coastline are at Walvis Bay and Lüderitz. There are several north-facing bays, which have been used as landing places in the past, but they offer little natural protection. The coast is described in the "British Admiralty African Pilot - Vol.II". The ports of Walvis Bay and Lüderitz are described in several publications such as "Ports of the World" (Lloyd's of London Press).

The predominant waves are swell, generated by the SE Trades, and relatively close to the shoreline the waves are most frequently from S to SW direction. Wave records have been taken at several sites on the coastline, and the results have been presented by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (Report T/SEA8401, March 1984). These studies are likely to contain enough wave data for preliminary designs, and possible detail designs. The results of deep water (50 m) wave-ride measurements may be summarised as:

TABLE 8 DEEP WATER WAVE-RIDE MEASUREMENTS: NAMIBIAN COAST

|==================================================================|
|                           SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT (m)            |
|----------------|----------------|----------------|---------------|
|                |   Walvis Bay   |     Lüderitz   |  Oranjemund   |
|----------------|----------------|----------------|---------------|
| 50% >          |       1,4      |        2,2     |      1,8      |
| 20% >          |       1,6      |        2,7     |      2,3      |
| 10% >          |       1,8      |        3,0     |      2,8      |
|  2% >          |       2,2      |        3,6     |      3,8      |
| 3 hours in     |                |                |               |
| 50 years       |       4,5      |        7,5     |      9,0      |
|==================================================================|

The results show that wave heights gradually decrease in a northwards direction along the Namibian coast.

A major consideration in the design of port facilities is the littoral drift, which in some places may have caused the coast to move 1,5 to 3 km from the latest charted position. The northward littoral drift is caused by the cold Benguela Current, also by wave action. The amount of littoral drift is governed by the angle of the coast to the waves, hence the movement north of Swakopmund (when the coast is aligned NNW-SSE) is less than south of Walvis Bay (where the coastline is almost N-S). There is little data on the magnitude of the drift, but it has been estimated to be in the region of 1-2 million m3 per year north of Swakopmund. The magnitude of the littoral drift is dependent on the specific site conditions, and this Study has to include a siltation study to determine the effect of the development on the coastline, together with estimates of the likely siltation within the harbour.

The port of Walvis Bay at present handles the majority of the seaborne trade of Namibia. It has 8 wharves with a dredged depth of 10,3 m, and a tanker berth. The port also has a large fishing harbour, with several processing plants. The quantity of cargo handled at Walvis Bay is not exactly known, but it is understood that berth occupancy was less than 25% during 1988.

The port of Lüderitz has not been developed in recent years because Walvis Bay was favoured by South Africa before it, was better situated and provided adequate natural protection. Lüderitz used to be a centre for the southern fishing fleet, but the fleet moved to Walvis Bay in the 1960s. At present, the port is the centre of the rock lobster industry, and also handles less than 20.000 t of cargo each year. Coasters of up to 5.000 dwt with a draft less than 5,8 m can moor at the jetty, which was constructed in 1968. Larger vessels (up to 15 m) can moor in the outer harbour and offload into lighters. At present the port has no facilities for containers.

A brief feasibility study was carried out by Brown in 1986 regarding the expansion of Lüderitz to provide three container berths with 9 m to 10 m depth. The report concludes that the cheapest solution would be to construct the berths on Shark Island, opposite the existing jetty, but that the best location would be a new port facility at Nautilus Bay, which would provide adequate space for future development. The Brown report is useful because it concludes that developments would be possible, and it gives clear ideas for options. However, it is a very brief study and its findings have to be re-examined in this Study.

The requirements of the Namibian fishing fleet were discussed in a report prepared by the FAO in 1988. This report concludes that the potential long-term fleet could total 340 boats (after an initial period with low volume fishing to allow stocks to recover). Facilities for these vessels could be provided in various ways, either at Walvis Bay, at sea, Lüderitz, neighbouring countries or at a new port on the northern Namibian coastline. The possibility of constructing a new port to serve the northern fishing grounds was considered in the late 1960s leading to a full feasibility study into a harbour at Möwe Bay by Lillicrap, Wassenaar and Partners in 1969, but the project did not proceed. The study concluded that a harbour for twelve trawlers and coasters could be constructed, which could be expanded at a later date to accommodate vessels of up to 16.000 dwt. However, the report recommended further studies on the questions of littoral drifts and selection of the design wave height. It was intended that the harbour should be largely self-sustained, with access by air and a track along the coast from the south.

9.4 MARITIME AFFAIRS: AVAILABLE SOURCES

This appendix gives details of previously published reports. The inclusion of an item on this list does not indicate that the information therein shall be easily available (i.e. the report may be confidential, or may have been lost or represents unpublished material).

The Consultant for the Study shall be responsible for locating all the reports listed (where possible), including all costs incurred. The Consultant shall also be responsible for appraising the data contained in the reports, and should advise on the accuracy of the data.

9.4.1 TRADE

1. Government Statistics

2. World Bank Statistics

3. Study on Transport and Communications for Namibia, March 1990.

9.4.2 FISHING INDUSTRY

1. Namibia: Analysis of Policy Options and Preparation of Contingency Plans for Fisheries: UNCNNP, UNDP, FAO, Rome 1988. This report includes a full list of references on the fishing industry.

9.4.3 PORTS FACILITIES AND COASTLINE

1. Charts published by British Admiralty, South African Hydrographic Department and German Government (pre 1930)

2. Unpublished hydrographic information held by British and South African Hydrographic Departments

3. Study on Transport and Communications for Namibia, March 1990

4. Review of Existing Wave Data, Wave Climate and Design Waves for South African and South West African (Namibian) Coastal Waters, J. Rossouw, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Stellenbosch, South Africa, March 1984, CSIR Report T/SEA 8401

5. Wave Conditions for the South West Africa Coastal Area. Ocean Wave Research - Report No.7: CSIR, Stellenbosch, South Africa, October 1970

6. Wave reports from passing ships. Data held by several centres worldwide

7. Lüderitz Bay Port Information. Compiled by the Lüderitz Port Users' Committee

8. Port Handbook 1989-90, Walvis Bay Harbour. Published by the Port Director, Walvis Bay Harbour

9. Engineering Geology of Southern Africa, Vol.4, A.B.A. Brink, Building Publications, Pretoria, 1985

10. Aerial photographs of sites between Sandwich Harbour and Cape Cross, held by the Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, Windhoek. These are 35 mm pictures, but may yield information on littoral drift

11. Aerial photographs held by the Surveyor General, Windhoek.

The references listed in this Section of the Memorandum also contain details of the present situation:

9.4.4 REPORTS ON PROPOSED FUTURE FACILITIES

 

1. Report on the Potential of Lüderitz for Development. S.A.S. Brown, Johannesburg, 17th July 1986

2. Report on an Investigation into the Potential Development of Walvis Bay, Transport Research Centre, University of Stellenbosch, 1977

3. Trans-Kgalagadi Railway Study, Ministry of Mineral Resources and Water Affairs, Government of Botswana, Gaborone, 1984

4. Study on Transport and Communications for Namibia, March 1990

5. Report into Siting of Harbour on Northern Namibian Coastline, Prepared by Sarusas and CSIR, Stellenbosch, South Africa, Report MEG 653, March 1968

6. Report on Feasibility Study of a Harbour and Terminal Facilities at Möwe Point, Lillicrap Wassenaar & Partners, Johannesburg, 25th May 1969.

7. Report: CSIR: Division of Earth, Marine and Atmospheric Science and Technology: Potential Harbour Sites on the Namibian Coast between the Swakop and the Ugab River Mouths, Stellenbosch, December 1990

ENDNOTES

[38] CSIR: Division of Earth, Marine and Atmospheric Science and Technology: Potential Harbour Sites on the Namibian Coast between the Swakop and the Ugab River Mouths, Stellenbosch, December 1990

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