3.0 A CRITICAL SURVEY OF THE PORT OF WALVIS BAY

3.1 TECHNICAL PORT FACILITIES

 3.1.1 LOCATION OF PORT, HYDROGRAPHIC CONDITIONS, SEA ACCESS

Walvis Bay is situated approximately in the middle of the coastline of Namibia, approximately 22o57' south and approximately 14o30' east, due west of Windhoek.

The harbour is formed by a low lying sand peninsula, the Walvis Peninsula leading to Pelican Point. The harbour is approximately 9 km wide at the entrance, and 12 km long (although the southern half is a very shallow lagoon). The port facilities are well protected by the Walvis Peninsula against the mainly south-west swell. The most northern point of the peninsula is changing its position by 15 m to 20 m to the north east caused by the coast-parallel drifting sands from the south west.

The Benguela current is passing Pelican Point in a northerly direction and causes in the Walvis Bay a circular flow which can expressively be observed during strong south westerly wind conditions. These circular currents do not cause any disadvantageous effects in the port itself but can eventually require additional tug boat assistance to ships during turning and warping manoeuvres.

The Walvis Bay circular flow current crosses the dredged approach channel to the port with 0,5 to 1 kn [9] in a south westerly direction. During spring tides the low tide current flowing in a north easterly direction can reach values up to 4 kn at the entrance to the lagoon. The tides are semidiurnal tides. The difference in tidal ranges is between 0,6 m at neap tide and 1,6 m at spring tide. The rise of the tide is referred to the zero reading of the Chart Datum for the lowest spring tide low water.

The principal wind direction is south to south west with 50% probability, for approximately 30% there are no winds. The for the port operations unfavourable north to north west winds (10 % probability) are of little force and do not affect unduly the port operations. Gale force winds can be encountered during an average of 9 days per year.

The mean annual precipitation is 13 mm per year, on 6 days per year a rainfall height of 1 mm or more can be experienced. Fog conditions can be frequently encountered, especially in the morning hours but during the late morning hours the fog disappears normally in the vicinity of Walvis Bay. Reduced sight distances (sight distance less than 2 sm) due to fog can be found during approximately 900 hours per year.

The main navigation aid to approach the Port of Walvis Bay is the light house at Pelican Point. There are radar reflectors and a radar reply buoy installed. One sea mile north of Pelican Point is a spar buoy which has to be by-passed in order to approach the steering buoy at Fairway. From this buoy the approach channel (length 3,4 km; width 134 m and 10,0 m depth CD) will be navigated under 183o. The water depth at the entrance to the harbour is 20 m, but the depth decreases steadily and the approaches to the port are maintained through dredged channels. The approach channel is safeguarded by different navigation aids like different types of buoys and in the channel centre line a radio navigation line is established. The navigation aids are provided under the rules of the "International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA)" [10].

The natural harbour provides adequate protection for the commercial wharves at the port, although at times long period swells caused by the circular flow in the bay can cause problems for vessels moored alongside as outlined above. The fishing wharves are located north-east of the commercial wharves, and are more exposed to north-westerly wave action. A small breakwater has been constructed to protect some of these wharves.

The approach channel is leading to the tanker jetty and the eight commercial wharves and the fishing port. The fishing port can also be reached via a second buoyed approach channel (length 1,1 km; width 80 m and depth 6,75 m CD). The maximum accepted length of vessels for the commercial port is 230 m, exemptions can be approved.

The silting up of the bay is caused by the transport of fine sediments which are sourced from the south and which will be drifted around Pelican Point. These sediments will drift into the harbour by action of the circular currents and tide flows and also sands form the Namib desert which are windblown from the east. Dredging the approach channel and the commercial port is therefore required for every four to five years. 150.000 m3 material per year have to be removed.

3.1.2 STRUCTURAL FACILITIES, LAND ACCESS

 The subsoil conditions in the port area can be described as silt with some sands and clays. The water depth at the wharf position in the Commercial Port for vessels is 10 m. The port contains 8 berths, with a total wharf length of about 1.400 m. The channel has been dredged to 10,05 m (below low tide datum), whilst the berths have been dredged to 10,67 m depth, permitting vessels with draft up to 10,4 m to use the port. The permissible underkeel clearance is 0,6 m. Exemptions are possible. The berths 1 to 3 have a total length of 463 m. A further deepening to -12,00 m is possible without risking the structural stability of the berth structures. The berths 4 to 8 are aligned in an skew angel of 17o against berths 1 to 3. The total length is 911 m. A further deepening with 0,60 m is possible without risking the structural stability of the berth structures. The small craft harbour is situated north east of berth 1.

The port also contains a dolphin-type tanker jetty which can take vessels with a length between 128 m and 192 m (i.e. approx. 7.000 to 25.000 dwt). The fuel is pumped to large storage tanks. Due to the endangered structural stability of the structures a lowering of the depth of more than -10,67 m is not possible.

The port is fully equipped with the necessary harbour craft, storage facilities and cranage to handle the goods that are moved through the port.

There are three sheds (B-Cargo Shed, Cold Store, D-Cargo Shed) in the commercial port which were originally envisaged for general cargo. They are structurally equal and have a ground area of nearly 4.000 m2. Their usage changed considerably from general cargo to other purposes. The shed behind berth 5 was recently changed to a cold store with an additional extension of 5.300 m2 to the north east. Two steel tanks behind berth 6 with a content of 9.400 m3 are used for the storage of imported sulphuric acid for Rössing Uranium Limited. The tanks are connected with two pipelines (210 mm, 350 mm) to a railway connecting point. East of these tanks, behind berths 5 and 6 an open concrete storage for bulk-cargo is situated (Ore bin for Tsumeb Corporation Limited). The bulk cargo is transported via a sloped conveyer belt system to a variable loading point to the ship's hold. This handling system was originally planned for the export of copper ore and serves presently as intermediate storage and export point for salt (capacity: 30.000 t). The concrete storage has some structural deficiencies and rehabilitation has to be initiated.

A new bulk terminal is currently (January 1995: to be completed in April 1995) under construction. It is a joint venture project of MacPhail Namibia Holdings Limited and NamPort. The owning and operating joint venture company is to be known as Walvis Bay Bulk Terminal (Pty) Ltd and it will be capable of loading as well as off-loading cargo vessels at a rate of about 500 tons per hour. A new rail track is also under construction, quite some distance away from the quay and the new bulk terminal on completion can load freight trains at the same rate of 500 tons per hour. The loading system will have a highly efficient self-cleaning washing system enabling it to cope with a wide variety of bulk products such as coal, manganese, fertiliser, fluorspar, sodalite, salt, wheat, maize, cement clinker etc.

When the bulk terminal is completed, road and rail trucks will be off-loaded fast and efficiently by means of a bottom dump station. The product is then transported via the conveyor belt system to the various stockpiles and automatically stockpiled by means of a stacker and reclaimer. Reclaiming onto the conveyor system is done by the same stacker and reclaimer and the product is then transported to the ship loader where it is automatically loaded onto the ship. The conveyor belt system is designed in a ring system so that loading and off-loading of two separate ships with different products can be accomplished simultaneously. Products being off-loaded from the ship can be discharged directly into road or rail trucks or silos or go to open stockpiles.

The container terminal behind berths 7 and 8 consists of three blocks 77 m by 16,6, m. 216 open space storage places are used for 20' containers. They can be stacked 3 to 4 containers high. The total storage capacity is thus 648 20' containers. The container yard has 24 connections for freezing containers. The container storage site is paved with concrete interlocking stones while the access surfaces have bitumen surfacings.

All operational areas have bitumen surfacings. Some areas south west of the container terminal (surface area: 120.000 m2 ) have no pavements and are used for the intermediate storage of coal. The areas south east of the container terminal (approx. 70.000 m2 ) are presently not used but expansion plans are in existence.

Walvis Bay Port is connected by good road and rail connections to Swakopmund, which is in turn connected to the trunk road and rail systems of Namibia. The total railway track length in the port area (all 8 berths have direct rail connection) is approximately 27 km. The port is connected by road (13th Street north east and 5th Street south west) to the town of Walvis Bay. The port induced road traffic is not causing any hazard or noise pollution. A considerable portion of the goods traffic between port and the industrial areas north east of the 13th Street is not touching the living quarters of Walvis Bay while making use directly via 2nd and 3rd Street East.

The Walvis Bay Fishing Port is situated north east of the Commercial Port. The shore line has a length of 2,7 km while 2 km of it consists of an embankment which is protected by casted armour rocks. For a length of 700 m shore-parallel docking facilities are provided adjacent to several fish factories (design water depth: 7.00 m. below low tide datum, actual water depth: 6,00 m). Ninety degrees to the shore line docking facilities are provided in order to land fish on both sides and transport it to the adjacent private fish factories. The lengths of the piers is between 11 m and 80 m. The water depths along these piers is - 5,00 m and less. Due to the endangered structural stability of the docking structures a lowering of the depth of more than this water depth is not possible.

Fish factories require large volumes of water for cleaning but also when pumping the pelagic fish from the trawlers fishhold to the factory.

At present most wastewater is disposed directly into the sea untreated. The argument is that the foreign matter in the water is biodegradable. This might be so, but while the thin film of fish oil is preventing air into the sea water, living creatures die or move away. The former Walvis Bay Port Authority, PortNet, used to take mussel samples from the commercial quay to establish the level of industrial pollution in the water. Last year no mussels could be found.

The commercial harbour is not free of blame either. Stronger measures must be implemented to prevent bulk cargo spillage from blowing into the port during and immediately after loading or landing of bulk commodities.

The City of Walvis Bay's wastewaters are collected in a sewage disposal system and treated in a biological sewage treatment plant. Parts of the treated wastewaters are used for the watering of public gardens and parks in the town. Some of the wastewater effluent are lead to infiltration areas within the desert dunes in the hinterland.

In the area of the fishing port, just east of the tanker jetty is the Synchrolift situated. A technical rehabilitation and upgrading is indicated and should be part of Port Development Master Plan.

3.1.3 GENERAL CARGO HANDLING AND TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT

In this section of the Study the cargo handling and transport equipments are dealt with as far as they are part of NamPort and owned by other private companies. The wharves have 14 rail mounted (rail gauge: 4,12 m) cranes on tracks parallel to the wharf, but these are largely being replaced by mobile cranes. Zinc and other ores are handled by an automated loading system, whilst other bulk materials are handled by a variety of more traditional means. The ore loader is operated by "Tsumeb Corporation Ltd." and has a capacity of 400 t per hour. Container are off-loaded by ship's gear onto trailers, which are towed to the stacking area where they are stacked by two rail mounted gantry cranes. It is understood that about 300 containers are handled per week (15.600 per year). The railway operates directly into the container stacking area, permitting direct loading of containers (and other cargo) onto railway wagons.

The quay cranage is pictured in table 6:

TABLE 6 CRANAGE OF WALVIS BAY PORT (as on 12 March 1991)

|==================================================================|
| BERTH NUMBER       | CRANE   | LIFTING CAPACITY | LIFTING RANGE  |
|                    |         | (t)              |(feet) (m)      | 
|--------------------|---------|------------------|----------------|
| BERTHS 1 -3        | 2 DEMAG |  4 t             | 100' 30,5 m    |
| RE-CONSTRUCTED     | 1982/84 |                  |                |
| AND EXPANDED:      | 3 DEMAG |  4 t             |  65' 19,5 m    |
| 1982 - 1984        | 1982/84 |                  |                |
|                    | 1 DEMAG | 15 t             |  55' 16,8 m    |
|                    | 1982/84 |                  |                |
|                    | 1 DORMAN| 15 t             |  60' 18,3 m    |
|                    | (KRUPP) |                  |                |
|                    | 1965    |                  |                |
|--------------------|---------|------------------|----------------|
| BERTHS 4 -8        | 2 DEMAG |  4 t             | 100' 30,5 m    |
| CONSTRUCTED        | 1982/84 |                  |                |
| 1959 - 1960        | (1 DEMAG Crane: jib removed for repairs)    |
|                    | 2 DEMAG |  4 t             |  65' 19,5 m    |
|                    | 1982/84 |                  |                |
|                    | 3 KRUPP |  4 t             |  65' 19,5 m    |
|                    | 1965    |                  |                |
|==================================================================|
SOURCE: Personal investigation by Deputy Minister for Works,
Transport and Communication on 12 March 1991

At berths 1 to 3 four cranes with 4 t lifting capacity are used. The operational capacity is satisfactory but they are in need of painting maintenance. Two further cranes (15 t lifting capacity), the one is in good and the other in bad shape, are supplying berths 2 and 3. Six cranes for berths 4 to 8 (one is not in a working condition at present) have a lifting capacity of 4 t. Painting maintenance is indicated for these cranes. All electrical installations, not the engines, have to rehabilitated.

The container terminal possesses two rail mounted container portal cranes (span width: 30,0 m; line load of rails: 22 t/m). They have a lifting capacity of 25 t each and were manufactured by "Wolff" in 1975. One crane was recently overhauled, the other is in good working condition. These cranes are only suitable for the handling of containers on land and not between ship and wharf.

Two front-end loaders (manufacturer: Wright, 1988) are mainly used for Shed B for the handling of fluorspar and are in good working condition. Two tractors (manufacturer: Bell, 1993) are mainly used for the shunting of railway goods waggons and are in very good condition. 18 Forklifts with lifting capacities between 3 t and 25 t are used. They were manufactured by various manufacturers between 1976 and 1991 and their conditions vary from good to bad. 11 Mechanical Horses are used. They were manufactured by various manufacturers between 1976 and 1993 and their conditions vary from very good to bad. Out of 23 trailers three trailers (1982) are suitable for the transport of 40' containers and 20 trailers (6: 1972; 10: 1982; 4: 1984) for the conveyance of 20' containers. All trailers older than 10 years have to be overhauled. A special container transporter for the transport of 20' containers (manufacturer: Deacon, 1989) is in a satisfactory technical shape.

The port is comprising of three tugs which were built between 1972 and 1975 and which were rehabilitated in the last three years. They all are in a very good technical shape. The two stronger tug boats are sea tugs while the smaller is used as a port tug and to transport pilots to the ships [11].

Two long-boats (1972 and 1974) are in a satisfactory shape. The larger one can transport up to 20 people, the smaller one can be used for the transport of the pilots.

A 27 m long, not self propelled pontoon, manufactured in 1972 is equipped with a "P + H" crane (lifting capacity 4 t) which is equipped to do smaller dredging works. Additional the pontoon is equipped with a boom in order to lift and move anchoring devices and buoys. Pontoon and appurtenances are in a good condition. For the transport of dredging material a self-propelled barge (185 kW and 80 m3 capacity) with a swivelling mechanism (1989) is used. The technical shape of the barge is satisfactory.

3.2 PORT THROUGHPUT AND TRAFFIC YIELD

3.2.1 IMPORT CLASSES AND QUANTITIES OF GOODS

Table 7 shows the import and transit goods passing the Commercial Port of Walvis Bay for the period 01 April 1993 to 31 March 1994, divided into different classes of commodities and types of cargo. The degree of containerisation was established with 52%. While general cargo and bulk cargo were handled by NamPort, fuel cargo was handled by private companies. The transit quantity of 40.000 t of frozen fish was handled by factory ships and partly transshipped to factory or freezing ships (according to Namibian Fisheries Policy and legislation fish caught in the Namibian EEZ have to be verified in Namibian ports). Grain imports of approximately 50.000 t were maize consignments by the "World Food Programme" which were handled and bagged in the port and then transported to Angola and Zambia. Approximately 50% of the total import goods are originated from South Africa. Major import goods were fuel products, coal, cement sugar and other food commodities.

TABLE 7 THROUGHPUT OF GOODS IN WALVIS BAY PORT: IMPORTS: 1993/94

Pos.

Class of Goods

Quantity (1.000 t)

(%)

(%)

1.

General Cargo

1.1

General Cargo in Containers

1.1.1

Sugar

38,7

1.1.2

Cement

17,4

1.1.3

Beverages

15,4

1.1.4

Food Items

8,5

1.1.5

Chemicals

10,9

1.1.6

Equipment and Spare Parts

5,0

1.1.7

Diverse

46,4

1.1

SUMMARY

142,3

(52%)

1.2

Conventional General Cargo

1.2.1 Frozen Fish (Import)

42,7

1.2.2 Frozen Fish (Transit)

40,0

1.2.3 Fishmeal

22,0

1.2.4 Metals

6,3

1.2.5 Diverse

19,6

1.2 SUMMARY

130,6

(42%)

1.3 SUMMARY: GENERAL CARGO

272,9

(100%)

(26%)

2. Bulk Cargo
2.1 Grain (Import)

85,3

2.2 Grain (Transit)

49,7

2.3 Coal

148,4

2.4 SUMMARY: BULK CARGO

283,4

(27%)

3. Liquid Fuel
3.1 Petrol and Diesel

488,3

3.2 Sulphuruc Acid

9,8

3.3 SUMMARY: FUEL

498,1

(47%)

4. TOTAL IMPORTS

1.054,4

(100%)

NOTA: All Imports in the Port of Walvis Bay including Transit: 01.04 1993 - 31.03.1994

Table 8 shows all exports which were shipped via the Commercial Port of Walvis Bay for the period 01 April 1993 to 31 March 1994. The degree of containerisation was with 62% even higher than for import and transit movements. Exports to South Africa were 60% of the total exports. Main export commodities to South Africa were salt (approx. 280.000 t) and fish products (approx. 60.000 t).

Interesting is the balance between imports and exports of general cargo. The imports with 273.000 t have to be compared with the exports of 277.000 t. This means that empty movements can be avoided and favourable shipping rates can be offered to the advantage of the economy of Namibia. This is also valid for bulk cargo where the coal imports are nearly in balance with the salt exports. It is remarkable to compare this advantageous transport situation with the exports and imports to and from South Africa by rail where a considerable unbalance between imports and exports exists which requires different goods waggon types.

TABLE 8 THROUGHPUT OF GOODS IN WALVIS BAY PORT: EXPORTS: 1993/94

Pos.

Class of Goods

Quantity (1.000 t)

(%)

(%)

1.

General Cargo

1.1

General Cargo in Containers

1.1.1

Fishmeal

5,4

1.1.2

Fish Products

70,1

1.1.3

Copper/Lead

46,3

1.1.4

Skins and Furs

9,1

1.1.5

Salt in Bags

17,1

1.1.6

Diverse

24,2

1.1

SUMMARY

172,3

(62%)

1.2 Conventional General Cargo
1.2.1 Salt in Bags

41,6

1.2.2 Frozen Fish

18,1

1.2.3 Marble and Granite

20,5

1.2.4 Wood and Timber

13,2

1.2.5 Diverse

11,0

1.2 SUMMARY

104,4

(38%)

1.3 SUMMARY: GENERAL CARGO

276,6

(100%)

(45%)

2. Bulk Cargo
2.1 Salt

270,2

2.2 Feldspar

37,2

2.3 Zinc Concentrate

20,6

2.4 SUMMARY: BULK CARGO

328,0

(54%)

3. Liquid Fuel
3.1 Fish Oil

8,6

3.3 SUMMARY: FUEL

8,6

(1%)

4. TOTAL EXPORTS

613,2

(100%)

NOTA to table 8: All Exports from the Port of Walvis Bay: 01.04 1993 - 31.03.1994

Table 9 shows the total throughput in the Commercial Port of Walvis Bay. During the last ten years the throughput doubled but stayed constant since Independence.

TABLE 9 TOTAL THROUGHPUT: COMMERCIAL PORT OF WALVIS BAY

YEAR

1.000 t

1984/85

552

1985/86

839

1986/87

959

1987/88

1.299

1988/89

999

1989/90

1.125

1990/91

1.057

1991/92

983

1992/93

1.139

1993/94

1.179

NOTA: Total Throughput excluding liquid fuel products from 1984/85 to 1993/94: The
              liquid fuel products can be roughly estimated with at least 1/3 of the total throughput

Based on Dierks, Klaus: Key Points on Namibian North Coast Port [12] table 10 gives a summary of the total throughput through all Namibian port facilities for the years 1995 to 2015:
             

TABLE 10: SUMMARY OF TOTAL THROUGHPUT

 

 

000 t

1995

2005

2015

exp.

imp.

total

exp.

imp.

total

exp.

imp.

total

Slow:

bulk

other

total

550

140

690

800

130

930

1350

270

1620

350

155

505

900

210

1110

1250

365

1615

325

155

480

1050

270

1320

1375

425

1800

Rapid:

bulk

other

total

625

275

900

830

200

1030

1455

475

1930

1700

765

2465

1225

260

1485

2925

1025

3950

4100

1370

5470

1750

335

2085

5850

1705

7555

Expected:

bulk

other

total

525

245

770

800

170

970

1325

415

1740

800

370

1170

1090

180

1270

1890

550

2440

900

420

1320

1450

245

1695

2350

665

3015

3.2.2 SHIPS TRAFFIC

Table 11 pictures the traffic of ships in the period from 01 April 1993 to 31 March 1994. It can be derived that the Commercial Port of Walvis Bay was in average daily visited by at least two commercial ships and foreign fishing boats [13].

TABLE 11 SHIPS TRANSPORT: COMMERCIAL PORT OF WALVIS BAY: 93/94

Pos.

Type of Ship

Number

Gross Registered

Tons (in m3 )

1.

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

Intercontinental Traffic

Container Ships

Ro-Ro Ships

Bulk Carriers

Tankers

General Cargo Ships

SUMMARY

 

6

6

21

17

132

182

 

146.745

224.908

937.679

724.800

2.009.796

4.043.928

2.

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

Coastal Traffic

Container Ships

Bulk Carriers

Tanker: Liquid Fuel

Tanker: Diverse

General Cargo Ships

SUMMARY

 

49

12

8

9

4

82

 

1.299.742

511.661

363.346

33.021

316.917

2.524.687

3

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

Diverse Traffic

Foreign Fishing Ships

Foreign Tug Boats

Patrol Ships

Research Ships

Passenger Ships and Diverse

SUMMARY

 

435

13

15

20

76

559

 

2.434.880

34.608

22.418

58.580

207.980

2.758.466

4 SUMMARY 1 - 3

823

9.327.081

In analysing table 11 the following ship dimensions can be derived (table 12: 1993/94):

TABLE 12 AVERAGE SHIP DIMENSIONS: WALVIS BAY: 1993/94

Traffic

Gross Registered

Tons (in m3 )

Gross Registered

Tons (in 100 ft3)

Length (approx.)

Intercontinental

22.219

7.849

150 m

Coastal

30.789

10.873

170 m

Diverse

4.935

1.743

80 m

Total (Average)

11.333

4.002

120 m

The largest ship ever visiting the Port of Walvis Bay was the Queen Elisabeth II with approximately 67.000 GRT and a length of 295 m. The maximum acceptable normal ships are bulk carriers with a length of 230 m. A ship with this length has a maximum dead weight tonnage of 45.000 t and a draught of 11,5 m with full load. Due to the restriction of 10.00 m draught the ship could not enter and leave the port with full load.

3.2.3 CONTAINER TRAFFIC

Table 13 shows the container throughput 1993/94 divided into import and export containers, 20´and 40´containers as well as intercontinental and coastal container traffic. The containerised commodities for imports and exports can be found in tables 7 and 8.

TABLE 13 CONTAINER THROUGHPUT: PORT OF WALVIS BAY: 1993/94

Pos. Status: Relation:

Full/Empty Containers

Number

Status: Relation:

20 Feet/40 Feet Containers

Number

1.

1.1

1.1.1

1.1.2

1.2

1.2.1

1.2.2

1.3

Import

Intercontinental

Full

Empty

Coastal

Full

Empty

SUMMARY

 

 

 

 

2.403

214

 

4.620

1.768

9.005

Import

Intercontinental

20 - Feet

40 - Feet

Coastal

20 - Feet

40 - Feet

SUMMARY

 

 

2.165

226

 

6.338

25

8.754

2.

2.1

2.1.1

2.1.2

2.2

2.2.1

2.2.2

2.3

Export

Intercontinental

Full

Empty

Coastal

Full

Empty

SUMMARY

 

 

3.976

284

 

4.426

1.153

9.839

Export

Intercontinental

20 - Feet

40 - Feet

Coastal

20 - Feet

40 - Feet

SUMMARY

 

 

4.080

70

 

5.327

146

9.623

3. Import and Export

18.844

Import and Export

18.377

3.3 CARGO HANDLING IN THE WALVIS BAY COMMERCIAL PORT

3.3.1 STRUCTURES OF THE PORT CARGO HANDLING

Table 14 pictures the structures and organisations of the cargo handling in the Commercial Port of Walvis Bay. These organisations and their responsibilities have to be seen as basic competencies. For instance, the reception, the handling and transshipment of felspar is performed by NamPort, although normally bulk cargo is handled by private enterprise, except for the provision of infrastructure regarding the storing and the cranage for the loading which all fall under the responsibility of NamPort.

This flexibility regarding different competencies has to be seen in a favourable light because it has the objective to handle additional shipments, especially transshipment in the port which would have not been acquired if a rigid division between quay handling and stevedoring would have been in existence.

TABLE 14 STRUCTURE OF PORT HANDLING AND STEVEDORING SERVICES

Activity

Competence

Tug, Pilot and Fixing Services

NamPort

Stevedoring

Private Enterprises

Quay Services: General Cargo

NamPort

Quay Services: Bulk Cargo

Private Enterprises

Storage Services: General Cargo

NamPort

Storage Services: Bulk Cargo

Private Enterprises

Delivery and Reception: General Cargo

NamPort

Delivery and Reception: Bulk Cargo

Private Enterprises

3.3.2 ORGANISATION OF HANDLING OF GOODS

The following enterprises were in 1994 in possession of a stevedoring license which has to be renewed annually:

- African Stevedoring
- Grindrod Cotts
- International Stevedoring
- Walvis Bay Stevedoring

Walvis Bay Stevedoring turns over 80 to 90% of all goods in Walvis Bay. They belong to the Woker Freight Services Group and they also handle a container and storage depots.

The Commercial Port of Walvis bay offers a 24 hours service, but operates normally during the following hours (Monday to Saturday):

- 07.00 - 13.00 h = 6 hours (normal working hours)
- 14.00 - 17.00 h = 3 hours (normal working hours)
- 17.00 - 20.00 h = 3 hours (overtime)

Out of 12 hours brutto working hours in the average 10 hours will be used productively for the port operations and handling (nett working hours).

The port operations and handling services are dealt with and planned in a daily (working days) management meeting between all responsible parties. This meeting plans the wharf reservations and ship movements in the port as well as the handling equipment and staff.

For all these operations sufficient appropriate and qualified staff is available. NamPort has a staff of approximately 100 employees (crane and forklift operators as well as general port staff). The stevedoring companies use approximately 120 employees and in the average 50 temporary workers. At the maximum 150 temporary workers are available.

A unit on ship and on shore consists generally of one foreman, one operator, one checker and 8 workers. These unit structures are dealt with in a flexible manner. For instance, for the turn over of frozen fish the number of staff will be doubled, in order to relief every half hour the workers in the cool rooms of the ships and for the turn over of palettes the number of staff will be reduced to four (1 operator, 1 checker and 2 workers).

The handling and discharging of container ships is handled 100% with ships´s own equipment (cargo booms over hatch). The handling and discharging of general cargo is operated with approximately 60% wharf cranes and 40% with ship´s equipment.

3.3.3 TURN OVER PERFORMANCE RATIOS

Turn over performance is dependent on several factors, viz. the nature and properties of the goods, the type of ship and stevedoring, type and capacity of the handling equipment as well as human and organisational factors (especially direct or indirect transshipment).

Table 15 (Average Turn Over Performance for the most important Commodities) shows that in spite of aged handling equipment very good handling performances were achieved. The major reasons for this are the following:

- both Namport and the stevedoring companies work with planned
  performance points;
- the stevedores are working according to a bonus system which is
  coming into effect when the performance points are exceeded;
- bulk cargo is basically handled indirectly (via the storage sites) and
  general cargo basically semi-directly (with temporary placing of the
  haul on the wharf).

TABLE 15 AVERAGE PERFORMANCE RATIOS FOR
                   VARIOUS COMMODITIES

Pos. Commodity

Type/Group

1.000 tpa

(approx.)

%

t per

shift

Number

Shifts

t per

ship h

1.

2.

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

3.

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

Container

General Cargo

Salt in Bags

Frozen Fish

Fishmeal

Marble/Granite

Timber

Palettes, Bales, Packets etc.

Diverse

Bulk Cargo

Coal

Felspar

Salt: loose

Grain: loose

Zinc Concentrate

310

 

40

100

20

20

10

30

20

 

150

40

270

130

20

26,9

 

3,4

8,6

1,7

1,7

0,9

2,6

1,7

 

12,9

3,4

23,3

11,2

1,7

180

 

45

12

22

100

25

30

15

 

75

100

500

60

50

1

 

3

2

2

2

3

2

2

 

4

2

1

4

3

180

 

135

24

44

200

75

60

30

 

300

200

500

240

150

Summary (Average)

1.160

100

192

-

254

The performance ratio for container turn over of 180 t/h is based on 11,6 movements per hour (average for 1993/94). This ratio was five years ago with 21 movements per hour considerably higher. The reason for the efficiency reduction was that originally ships with modern container handling equipment on-board were used which were nearly as effective as modern container on-shore cranage. Recently older ships were used with outdated cargo booms for loading and unloading. For these ships 12 movements per hour represent a good result [14].

The annual turn over per berth amounted to 147.500 t (1.180.000 t total turn over for 8 berths except liquid fuel) during 1993/94. In this figure 68.000 t bunkering fuel is not included because it is pumped ex storage tank into the ships.

Noteworthy waiting times were not recorded during 1993/94. The quay engagement factor related to the real working hours was low with 18,7%. But related to the real engagement of berth positions with inclusion of non-working hours, intervals, idling times and times of waiting as well as bunkering and repair periods and waiting for documents and orders etc. the factual quay engagement factor was relatively high with 75,6%.

3.4 TURN OVER IN THE WALVIS BAY FISHING PORT

At the discharge quays of the five fishing factories in Walvis Bay the following quantities were landed in 1993 (rough estimated):

TABLE 16 LANDING OF FISH: WALVIS BAY FISHING PORT: 1993

FISH TARGET SPECIES QUANTITIES (t)

Horse mackerel

350.000

Pilchard

125.000

Anchovy

30.000

White Fish

95.000

SUMMARY

600.000

The pelagic industry with a catch season from March to September contributes to the total catch with pilchard, anchovy and approximately 100.000 t horse mackerel to a total pelagic catch of approximately 255.000 t. The remaining horse mackerel and white fish species are caught throughout the year. The total catch of 350.000 t horse mackerel includes approximately 150.000 t which are processed on the factory ships and landed to the port (relation between catch and product approximately 2:1).

Namibia's fishing fleet consists of approximately 230 units. 150 fishing boats operate form the Fishing Port of Walvis Bay The average age of these units is 20 to 30 years. The oldest vessel is built in 1951, the newest in 1990. The lengths of the vessels vary from 7 m to 121 m (3,5 t to 7.800 t GRT). The typical fishing boats are small trawlers with 23 m length and large trawlers with 47 m length. The factory ships have a draught which is not suitable for the Fishing Port and are loaded and unloaded in the Commercial Port.

The fishing vessels are unloaded by the staff of the fishing factories without delay. The unloading is done by means of pumps and sucking pipes into the processing plants with a rate of up to 30 t/h. The stevedoring and transshipment of fresh fish (white fish) is done in boxes. For this loading manoeuvre 5 to 10 workers are used and a rate of up to 10 t/h is achieved. Simultaneously with the unloading of fish the vessels are provided with fuel and fresh water. Six factories are providing the necessary ice. During the season the turnover periods are very short. The smaller vessels are intermittently one day in the port and on day on sea.

In 1994 32 privately owned fishing boats had no direct access to loading/unloading facilities in the Fishing Port of Walvis Bay. These vessels (12 pelagic vessels, 17 white fish trawlers and 3 longliners) had to make use of the quay facilities near the Synchrolift or asked permission to use the facilities of one of the fishing factories. The first option cannot be a permanent solution due to the fact that the berth sites have to be used for service and repair purposes. The second solution is also not practicable due to the fact that during the peak (pelagic) seasons the factory quays are heavily used and the factories tend to monopolise prices and loading times. Third parties, especially small Namibian fishing entrepreneurs are seriously hampered by this monopoly situation.

These problems will be aggravated when the official fishing policy of the Government will be realised to increase the on-shore processing of fresh fish instead of the factory ship processing of frozen fish from 20% in 1993 to 60% in future. This would mean that factory ships will use less the Commercial Port on cost of increased usage of the already overused Fishing Port.

The plans of NamPort to erect a new public common user facility for those fishing vessels which have no access to the existing Fishing Port waterfront quays can only be supported. The present loading capacities of the Walvis Bay Fishing Port is roughly estimated in table 17:

TABLE 17 PRESENT LOADING CAPACITIES OF WALVIS BAY FISHING PORT

a)

Average Turnover Performance Ratio

15 t/hour per ship

b)

Number Nett Working Hours

10 hours per day

c)

Max. Practicable Quay Occupation

240 days

d)

Loading Capacity per Berth

36.000 t/a

e)

Number of Berths

20

f)

Total Loading Capacity (approx..)

720.000 t/a

g)

Turnover 1993 (approx.)

600.000 t/a

h)

Utilisation Factor

83%

3.5 TECHNICAL PORT SERVICES

The arrival of ships into the Commercial Port is normally known approximately three weeks in advance. Three days and under exceptional circumstances one day before the time of arrival all data like cargo and the estimated time of arrival are known. Approximately three hours before entering the harbour the ship announces his arrival via FM radio to the radar equipped Port Control, which is manned during two shifts per day. In the case that Port Control is not manned the Light House at Pelican Point which is manned 24 hours per day can be notified via FM or via the public Radio Station Walvis Bay.

There is a duty for pilotage. Exceptions can only be approved for ships with less than 70 m length. Pilots are available between 06h00 and 22h00. Exceptions are possible. The pilot is boarding the ship 1 sm north west of the steering buoy at Fairway. Presently (mid 1994) all pilots are seconded from the South African PortNet. There is a requirement for personnel upliftment in the pilot sector.

There is also a duty to make use of the tug services. For ships with less than 70 m length exemptions can be made. Also here a requirement for personnel upliftment exists.

The calibration service for navigation aids is undertaken by an own long-boat. Every six months the entire approach waterway is calibrated (echo sounding, position determination by sextant). Shorter intervals are possible as required.

The dredging service is undertaken by a 27 m long, not self propelled pontoon, manufactured in 1972 is equipped with a "P + H" crane (lifting capacity 4 t) which is equipped to do smaller dredging works. All dredging material has to be dumped at special spoil grounds. Major dredging is normally required every four to five years and has to be undertaken by external commercial dredging companies.

All technical services are provided by NamPort for the Commercial Port of Walvis Bay only. The Fishing Port is provided with these technical services by Namport only in emergency situations.

The services regarding the navigation aids are provided by NamPort. For the time being (mid-1994) the South African PortNet is seconding a specialist for this purpose.

The Synchrolift in the Walvis Bay Fishing Port is presently managed and serviced by NamPort until such time that alternative arrangements (commercialisation, privatisation in conjunction with the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources) are indicated.

Waste removal for ships is only organised for the usual kitchen and household garbage. For this purpose, garbage bins which are removed by the Municipality of Walvis Bay are provided at each berth. No removal of wastewater, liquid fuel or old oil as well as bulk cargo spillage from blowing into the port during and immediately after loading or landing of bulk commodities is currently in place. This is also valid for the Fishing Port and especially the Synchrolift where the bodies of vessels are cleaned with pressurised air and the wastewater is lead directly into the port. Changes are urgently indicated.

NamPort has its own fire brigade. One of the tug boats is provided with fire distinguish equipment. On shore there is a fully equipped fire brigade station. Four fire brigade employees are available. More can be mobilised if so required.

For repair works, maintenance and rehabilitation works of all port equipment and structures four well equipped workshops are in existence.

The mechanical workshop I is especially well equipped. This workshop is accommodated in a 1.800 m2 shed with steel trusses with direct rail access. The equipment is sufficient to execute all types of metal-processing and welding activities. This workshop is responsible for the maintenance and upliftment of all off-shore equipment, the on-shore cranage and the synchrolift in the Fishing Port. This workshop can be expected to fulfil all port related tasks and is appropriate also for any expansions of port activities in the future. Presently it is, however, rather overdesigned.

The electrical workshop has to maintain all electrical port equipment including the power supply and the electrical installations of the quay cranes. The workshop's equipment is moderate but appropriate.

The mechanical workshop II is responsible for the maintenance and repair works for all movable port equipment (except the quay cranes) like vehicles, power horses, tractors, trailers, forklifts etc. This workshop is appropriately equipment with all essential equipment. The old oil residues are collected and exported to South Africa for treatment.

The maintenance and preventative maintenance of equipment and vehicles are well organised and managed. Each piece of equipment has a service card with a complete record of the history of the equipment and the data are computerised and easily available. One special point should be mentioned [15] regarding the spare part position and spare part supply: Before the handing-over of the Port of Walvis Bay to Namibia the spare part store of the former South African PortNet which was in charge of the port until 28 February 1994 was very well equipped with all types of spare parts for all kind of port related equipment. This store is presently (June 1994) empty without officially knowing what happened to the spare parts and who are the new owners. What is remarkable here that it can be derived that some or all of these spare parts came into the possession of private firms in Walvis Bay because even the most specialised spare parts are immediately available by local companies. It is not known how this situated developed and what the legal background is.

Presently the spare part stores of the three workshops are not very well equipped. But, the short-term delivery of spare parts are not delayed due to administrative or financial shortcomings on the side of NamPort. Spare parts which are not locally available - and this is rather the exception - have to be especially manufactured or ordered from foreign sources. Delivery from South Africa takes one week, from Europe it can take eventually several months.

The high degree of availability of equipment which lies at 90% and higher, is an indication for the high efficiency of the workshops, the good supply with spare parts and the highly qualified standard of work in the workshops. It has to be observed what the future position will be when eventually the current stock of spare parts ex the former PortNet stocks are running out and are not any more available form private companies in Walvis Bay.

All civil engineering and building activities are handled in a special construction centre which is located outside the actual port area. All structural components and all buildings like the sheds, pavements, quays, breakwaters, mooring structures and appurtenances including the underwater structures are at least annually inspected in a systematic manner according to maintenance and repair plans. The relevant technical staff is available as well as all the technical equipment. All building materials are locally available. The legal building standards are still the South African "SABS"-standards. Materials testing is done in the relevant professional materials testing laboratories in Windhoek. Bigger maintenance and repair works are contracted out to private enterprises.

3.6 PORT ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANISATION

3.6.1 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL BACKGROUND

With the re-integration of the Port of Walvis Bay into the Republic of Namibia on 1st of March 1994 the newly established "Namibian Port Authority (NamPort)" came into being. It is remarkable that the legal basis for NamPort, the Namibian Ports Authority Act, 1994 was finalised in a rather short period and brought through the two Houses of Parliament and signed by H.E., the President of the Republic of Namibia on 28 February 1994, one day before the re-integration of Walvis Bay into Namibia.

The main arguments for the establishment of this state-owned, commercialised Port Authority for the Namibian ports were the following [16]:

The Port of Walvis Bay is the most vital piece of transport infrastructure in Namibia. Because of its vital importance to the well-being of Namibians, the Government of the Republic of Namibia and the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication have been very careful when deciding on the appropriate institutional future arrangements for the running of the Walvis Bay Port. There have been three main considerations in the reasoning to establish a new, separate Port Authority and not to hand over the Port of Walvis Bay to the existing multimodal transport parastatal "TransNamib":

1. The Walvis Bay Port should be operated on effective and modern
    principles recognised in the world.

2. The Port is in effect the only port available for shipments between
    Namibia and the outside world and is therefore a monopoly.

3. The state is charged with the responsibility of providing aids to
    navigation and search and rescue services, and for controlling
    marine pollution.

The proposed Namibian Ports Authority is the only solution that will meet all these three requirements. The main rationale behind the creation NamPort was that it is not first and foremost a commercial operator, like, for instance TransNamib which has as objective to maximise profits, but rather that it, in principle and as final objective in the future, will function on a double track:

The first component would be the Port Management Division which is responsible for the infrastructure of the port, for policy and planning issues with the following tasks:

i. the optimised provision and maintenance of port and support
   infrastructure (non-profit bearing infrastructural functions);

ii. public services to ensure maritime safety and for search and rescue
    in the territorial waters of Namibia;

iii. services to control marine pollution (ii and iii are
     non-profit-bearing public functions).

The second component would be the Port Operation Division or Divisions which in particular would be responsible for port handling services. These day to day port operations are envisaged to eventually be provided by other (possible private) companies (the "Namibian Port Authority Act No. 2 of 1994" makes provision for this) which would enter into a contract with NamPort for this purpose. It has to be understood, that the South African Port Authority "PortNet" which run Walvis Bay until the 28 February 1994 is structured in a way that it represents simultaneously the referee and the player on a soccer field. This will initially also happen in the case of NamPort, but after some time we have to separate referee and player to separate units. Therefore this kind of Port Model is called an Infrastructural Port Model.

The advantages of the NamPort-Model are the following:

i. NamPort will be set up in a way very similar to the world's most
   successful ports, including ports in the USA, Bremen and Antwerp
   in Europe, and Hong Kong in Asia;

ii. NamPort is not a purely commercial object. Rather it can be
    mandated to perform a quasi-public role and to provide and ensure
    the provision of cost-effective services for minimised port fees to
    promote maximum usage of Namibian ports and in the
    interest of Namibian consumers, and for these reasons
    economically force traffic to Walvis Bay from Namibia's
    land-locked neighbours;

iii. Given this role as a quasi-public body, NamPort can be entrusted
     with performing certain functions for the State, such as the
     provision of services for maritime safety, search and rescue and
     the protection of the marine environment. These were also the
     main reasons why "TransNamib" was not chosen to run the Port
     of Walvis Bay.

Such a solution would not:

i. provide for a modern approach to the running of ports; (only three
   multi-modal (outdated) transport concerns are still in existence in
   the world: RSA, Mozambique and TransNamib: public scrutiny is
   hampered by the effect of cross subsidisation between the different
   modes of transport);

ii. provide adequate protection against monopoly abuse; and

iii. offer a good arrangement to provide for important maritime public
     functions e.g. navigation aids, environmental protection etc. (as
     witnessed by TransNamib's reluctance to run and desire to turn
     over the lighthouses to the State.)

The reasoning for our analysed motives to have created NamPort on the basis of the Infrastructural Port Model brings us the actual topic of this Paper, namely to elaborate on the principles of Namibia´s role as transit county for her land-locked neighbours and on cost recovery for the NamPort Port Services as well as on environmental matters to protect the fragile ecological balance of the areas around the Port of Walvis Bay.

The Namibian Ports Authority Act, 1994 is more modern and more progressive than most of the relevant port acts in Europe and elsewhere. The following provisions of the Act have to be additionally highlighted:

1. Expressively the Act makes provision for Ports and not only for the Port of Walvis Bay. The legal meaning is that the Port of Lüderitz has to be administered in future by NamPort and not any more, as presently the case, by TransNamib Limited. The transfer can at any time be authorised by the Minister of Works, Transport and Communication.

2. NamPort was not registered under the Corporation Act but under the Companies Act, 1973. This implies that NamPort has a high degree of autonomy to execute the day-to-day business under its own auspices while the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication restricts itself to the formulation of sectoral policy and controls NamPort through a Board of Directors (§ 11 of NamPort Act).

3. § 3, Section 2 stipulates: "Except where otherwise required in the national interest, the Authority shall conduct its business in such a manner as to ensure that the facilities and services related to a port are operated in order to obtain maximum usage of such facilities and services at competitive prices which will yield a fair and reasonable profit to the Authority."

4. The Board of Directors consists, except the three Permanent Secretaries of Works, Transport and Communication; Fisheries and Marine Resources and Finance, of four to maximum six representatives of the free enterprise (§ 4, Section 1; d).

5. The title deeds of the fixed assets shall not remain with the State but be transferred to the Authority (§§ 11 and 12). This is an important aspect for obtaining credits from commercial banks in order to promote the financial autonomy of the Authority.

6. The Authority has to establish the port tariffs on its own account and responsibility (§ 15, Section 1; i).

7. Conditions of services for the employees of the Authority are determined by the Board of Directors and not the Government.

8. The Authority is entitled to rent out assets, can tender out services and can take shares in other port-related enterprises, especially the day to day Port Operations.

In conjunction with the latter point it is envisaged to separate the "Port Operations" from the actual Authority, the "Port Management Division". This would mean, as outlined below, a separation between Infrastructure and Suprastructure of the Port.

NamPort has currently no problems to obtain the essential hard currency to conducts its business. In the case of any hard currency availability problem in the future it should be proposed to entitle NamPort to obtain some of its tariffs in hard currency and it should be permitted to use those for its own business purposes. The availability of spare parts for equipment does not represent any problem presently but the supply of these parts is sometimes delayed because the import tax has to be payed in advance. In order to assure a high degree of availability of equipment it should be considered to solve this problem by the creation of a suspense account.

According to the Namibian Ports Authority Act, 1994 the port area of the Port of Walvis Bay is clearly defined. According to § 13 in conjunction with the Schedule 1 d) this area includes the area of the Fishing Port of Walvis Bay as well as a strip of land between the old and new high water marks. This strip of land is used for decades by the private fishing industry.

According to § 22 of the Sea Fisheries Act, 1992 the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources is responsible for the running of the Fishing Port. § 30, Section 3 of the Namibian Ports Authority Act, 1994 stipulates expressively that the Ports Authority Act may not overrule the Sea Fisheries Act, 1992. It is therefore necessary to find an arrangement between the Namibian Ports Authority as responsible ports authority and the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources. This arrangement must be developed on the clear definition that NamPort has to be responsible for the port traffic and port traffic regulations and provisions for buoys and other navigation aids, the maintenance of the required water depths etc. and has to be re-imbursed for these services and the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources has to be responsible for the commercial usage of the Fishing Port.

Shortly before the re-integration of Walvis Bay into the Republic of Namibia the South African PortNet has apparently sold the strip of land between the old and the new high water mark to the private fishing industry residing along the waterfront north of the Fishing Port. But, due to time restrictions it was apparently not possible to finalise the title deeds of this strip of disputed land. But, the private fishing industry create a fait accompli in building new quays over the strip of land although the transfer of the title deeds was never finalised. The new quays are apparently to be used for the handling of frozen fish, in direct competition with the Commercial Port.

Clarification of the questions of assets and the splitted responsibilities between the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources and NamPort as well as the usage of the port facilities is urgently required. Even more important, a revised investment resp. development policy and a new tariff policy has to be established. This has all to be part of the new Port Development Master Plan for the Port of Walvis Bay. The finalisation of these questions has to be tackled before the envisaged Common User Facility in the Fishing Port can be realised.

3.6.2 ORGANISATION OF THE PORT AUTHORITY

NamPort intends to retain this slim structure, even under consideration of additional functions which had to be taken over from PortNet and which were addressed in the past from PortNet´s main office at Braamfontein in South Africa like a planning and building division, the compilation and updating of the port rules, the tariff structure, accounting and bookkeeping.

Remarkably progressive in the NamPort organisation is the lack of mangers on the division level and the command line of all workshops to a single Equipment Manager. With this organisation structure the limits are reached for the Chief Executive Officer regarding the span of control, especially due to the fact that he or she has no deputy. With the forthcoming privatisation of the port operations and the restriction of NamPort to the management and administration of the port infrastructure and the pilot, tug and fixing services a revised organisation for NamPort has to designed. For instance, the civil departments and light houses could result under the Port Engineer. For the presently operated Synchrolift an autonomous operating company is envisaged in the future.

3.6.3 PERSONNEL

Table 18 shows the personnel position for the 01 April 1994. The differentiation between "white" and "black" staff members has to be seen in the light of the affirmative action policy of the Namibian Government as enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia which is also enshrined in the Namibian Port Authority Act, 1994. Due to the serious lack of qualified technical, engineering and professional staff the Affirmative Action programme has to be implemented step by step without touching the technical efficiency of the port operations.

TABLE 18 PERSONNEL POSITION: NAMPORT: APRIL 1994

Pos. Division

White

Number

Black

Total

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Chief Executive Officer

Handling Services

Pilots and Tugs

Workshops

Construction Yard

Marketing

Finance

Information and Statistics

Personnel

Safety and Social

Communication (Transtel)

1

36

13

27

7

0

12

2

6

5

4

0

66

39

78

5

0

0

0

6

12

0

1

102

52

105

12

0

12

2

12

17

4

113

206

319

Presently the following positions are vacant (mid-1994): managers: marketing, personnel and finances. A highly qualified financial accountant is working for NamPort under contract and has developed a financial accounting system. Vacancies also exist for pilots and tug captains.

All NamPort employees receive still their former PortNet salaries whereby the former "Walvis Bay Special Allowance" (monthly N$ 436) will be considered in future salary adjustments. NamPort has concluded a recognition agreement with the "National Transport and Allied Workers Union (NATAU)". Managers in leading position are paid according to their market value and outside fixed salary scales. NamPort is completely autonomous in the establishment of their salary systems. A modern personnel management system with all relevant job descriptions and evaluations, evaluation and merit systems for all employees as well as a computerised salary and fringe benefit system and all relevant statistics are in place.

3.6.4 FINANCE

In order not to upset the local market, the Board of NamPort agreed to a recommendation of the Chief Executive Officer - as a transitional measure - to maintain the PortNet tariff structure for the present financial year. This principle was also build into the USE AGREEMENT between the former owner of the port PortNet and the new owner NamPort. Here it has to be observed that it is naturally not in South Africa´s interest to have a main competitor in NamPort with a highly competitive tariff structure. Unfortunately is the question of the "Port Assets" between Namibia and South Africa not satisfactorily resolved as yet. This stalemate situation results in the fact that NamPort has to pay approximately N$ 500.000 per month to PortNet. This amount is a heavy burden on the balance of NamPort and is the main reason that - against our target objectives - the tariff structure cannot be decreased at this point of time.

Currently NamPort works with a bank overdraft of approximately N$ 5 millions and a bank credit balance of approximately N$ 3,5 millions. The current book value of the port installations is estimated with N$ 85 millions and the replacement value in excess of N$ 1.000 millions. It will be of importance that the Namibian Government will not allocate a skewed value to the port installations.

The cash management and debit division of NamPort has to be re-established. No problems are foreseen due to the fact that four major clients yield approximately 80% of the total turnover. This system has to be computerised. NamPort has not any considerable debit demands (less than N$ 50.000 p.a. at a turn over profit of approximately N$ 40 millions p.a.).

ENDNOTES

[9] kn = knot = 1 sea mile/hour

[10] Burckardt, Ole and Morisse, Manfred: Hafensektor Namibias mit Schwerpunkt Walvis Bay, Schleswig, 1994

[11] Burckardt, Ole and Morisse, Manfred: Hafensektor Namibias mit Schwerpunkt Walvis Bay, Schleswig, 1994

[12] Dierks, Klaus: Key Points on Namibian North Coast Port: Summary of the Pre-Feasibility Study on Future Port Facilities in Namibia with Special Reference to the Möwe Bay Port, Windhoek, 1994

[13] Burckardt, Ole and Morisse, Manfred: Hafensektor Namibias mit Schwerpunkt Walvis Bay, Schleswig, 1994

[14] Burckardt, Ole and Morisse, Manfred: Hafensektor Namibias mit Schwerpunkt Walvis Bay, Schleswig, 1994

[15] Burckardt, Ole and Morisse, Manfred: Hafensektor Namibias mit Schwerpunkt Walvis Bay, Schleswig, 1994

[16] Extracts from speech before Parliament (National Assembly) in motivating the new "Namibian Ports Authority Bill (Bill 2 of 1994) (Act No.2 of 1994 dated 28.02.1994) by Hon. Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Dr. Klaus Dierks, M.P.

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