Endnotes

[1] Eriksen, Tore Linne: The Political Economy of Namibia - An Annotated, Critical Bibliography, The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies in Cooperation with the United Nations Institute for Namibia and the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 1985. See also: "NAMLIT": database query of the University of Bremen: Namibia Project: for "roads".

[2] Kinahan, J.: Personal information to author during April 1987.

[3] Kinahan, J.: The Archaeological Structure of Pastoral Production in the Central Namib Desert, SA Archaeological Society, Goodwin Series, Volume 5, 1986, p. 78

[4] Cape Archives: LMS Journals: Albrecht 1808, Schmelen 1816, Kitchingman 1820 as well as many other references in the "Transactions of the London Missionary Society" and the "Wesleyan Missionary Notices".

[5] Mossop, E.E. ed.: The Journal of Hendrik Jacob Wikar (1779), p. 16-201; The Journals of Jacob Coetzee (1760), p. 279-283 and Willem van Reenen (1791), p. 301-317, The Van Riebeeck Society, Cape Town, 1935

[6] Mossop, E.E. ed.: The Journals of Brink and Rhenius, being The Journal of Carel Frederik Brink of the Journey into Great Namaqualand, (1761-62), made by Captein Hendrik Hop, The Van Riebeeck Society, Cape Town, 1947, p. 25-61; p. 94 and p. 113-115

[7] Vedder, Heinrich: Südwestafrikas Geschichte bis zum Tode Mahareros 1890: 1.Teil: Namaland and Hereroland, Amboland: Kapitel 1: Entdeckung and Erforschung, SWA Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, Windhoek, 1973, p. 18-40

[8] Le Vaillant, Francois: Traveller in South Africa: Vernon S. Forbes: Le Vaillant's Travels in South Africa, 1781-1794, Library of Parliament, Cape Town, South Africa, 1973, p. 80-91

[9] Paterson, William: Into the Country of the Hottentots and Caffraria in the Years 1777, 1778 and 1779, The State Library, Pretoria, Microfiche Reprint Series No.2, 1789, p. 60 op. cit.

[10] Franken, J.L.M. ed.: Duminy Diaries (P. Pienaar: 1793), The Van Riebeeck Society, Cape Town, 1938, p. 284 and 292-294 as well as p. 315-317

[11] See Vedder, H. (translation): 2.Teil: Namaland gegen Hereroland: Kapitel 1: Aufmarsch and Kampf: 1800 - 1840, p. 209-210

[12] Ibid

[13] Letters and Journals of Missionaries of the London Missionary Society, Cape Archives, Cape Town. Many explanations have been given for the name "Orlam" in the literature on Namibia. One version is that it is derived from the Malay expression "orange lama", a man of long life, meaning an old, experienced servant. "Orlam" must be accentuated on the second syllable. Another popular version comes from the Afrikaans language where "oorlam", a word of unknown origin, means "cunning" or "sly". The Orlams were also known by the collective name "Afrikaners" by the Europeans of the Cape Colony during the 18th century. Thus both names are not original African concepts.

[14] Journals of the London Mission Society: Schmelen, 1819, Cape Archives, Cape Town, South Africa, p. 7

[15] Vigne, Randolph: James Archbell's "Beschrijving der Walvischbaai en omliggende plaatsen aan de westkust van Afrika" in 1823: an English translation with introduction and notes, Windhoek, 1991, p.29-36

[16] Ibid

[17] Methodist Missionary Society, South African correspondence, Box 299, 1821, No. 26 ("On trek," 30.06.1821). Rev. E.B. Cook met some of Archbell's Bosfontein congregation "halfway between Ameral's people (at Bassonabis [Naosanabis?] and this (Jonker Afrikaner's, 'Siberis' [Tsebris ?] in 1840 (Backhouse 1844, Appendix D: xxiv (see: Vigne: Beschrijving der Walvischbaai, 1991, p.35))

[18] See Vigne: Beschrijving der Walvischbaai, 1991, p.29

[19] "Grootfontein South" is not, as mentioned by Vigne, situated at the Fish River but at the Haseweb River, south of modern-day Maltahöhe.

[20] Dierks, Klaus: ||Khauxa!nas - The Great Namibian Settlement, Windhoek, 1992, p. 54-55

[21] Alexander, James Edward: Expedition of Discovery into the Interior of Africa, 2 vols., London, 1838, p. 206-215 and map

[22] Wellington, J.H.: South West Africa and its Human Issues, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1967, p. 116-117

[23] Tindall, B.A. ed.: The Journal of Joseph Tindall: Missionary in South West Africa, 1839-1855, The Van Riebeeck Society, Cape Town, 1954

[24] Annual Reports of the London Missionary Society, 1826.

[25] Quellen zur Geschichte Südwestafrikas, State Archives Windhoek, Volume 20: Kleinschmidt (translation): 13 September 1858, p. 75

[26] See Vedder, H.: Gewaltherrschaft von Windhoek aus: Wegebau, p. 251-254 op.cit.

[27] Richter's Map: Cover Page: Hahn, C.H.: Tagebücher 1837-1860: Part 2, Windhoek Archives Source Publications Series, 1984

[28] See Vedder, H.: Gewaltherrschaft von Windhoek aus: Wegebau, p. 251-252

[29] Wesleyan Missionary Notices: Vol.2: 1843: Extract of a letter from Mr. Joseph Tindall to the Rev. Barnabas Shaw, dated Nisbett Bath, August 1842, Cory Library, Grahamstown

[30] Moritz, E./Kleinschmidt (1842): Die ältesten Reiseberichte über Deutsch-Südwestafrika: Mitteilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten, volumes 28 (1915) and 29 (1916), p. 2569

[31] Hahn, Carl Hugo: Tagebücher 1837-1860 (translation): Part 1, Windhoek Archives Source Publication Series No.1, 1984, p. 144; p. 231 and p. 251-253

[32] Ibid

[33] Hahn, Carl Hugo: Tagebücher 1837-1860: Part 2, Windhoek Archives Source Publications Series No.2, 1984, p. 368

[34] Moritz, Walter mentions in: "Aus alten Tagen in Südwest: Scheppmannsdorf/ Rooibank and älteste Druckerei in Südwestafrika/ Namibia" on page 4 this instruction (translation): "Instruction für unsere Missionsbrüder in Süd-Afrika", Barmen, 1844, private copy

[35] Chapman, James: Travels in the Interior of South Africa: Hunting and Trading Journeys: From Natal to Walvis Bay & Visits to Lake Ngami & Victoria Falls, 1849-1861, 2 volumes, p. 223 and 225, London, 1868

[36] Andersson, Charles John: Lake Ngami, London, 1856

[37] Baines, Thomas: Explorations in South-West Africa, London, Longman, Green & Roberts, 1864: Map on page 34

[38] Wesleyan Missionary Notices: Vol.5: 1847: Extract of a letter from the Reverend Benjamin Ridsdale, dated Nisbett Bath, 12 December 1846, Cory Library, Grahamstown

[39] Ridsdale, B.: Scenes and Adventures in Great Namaqualand, London, 1883, p. 72-73; p. 165; p. 264 and p. 274-280. Another Wesleyan missionary, A.J.C. Bailie, referred also to Schans Vlakte.

[40] Ibid, p.275-276

[41] Dierks, Klaus: ||Khauxa!nas - Schans Vlakte: Oldest Urban Settlement in Namibia? : A Symbol for Independence, In Formation No.1, Windhoek, 1987. The hypothesis regarding the discovery of the Nama town ||Khauxa!nas is supported by further historical sources: See: Mears, W.G.A.: Wesleyan Missionaries in Great Namaqualand, 1820-1867, Cape Town, 1968, p. 20-23 and A.J.C. Bailie: Eerw.J. Bailie Dagboek:1845-1850: Kaapse N.G. Kerkargief: P 50 1/1.

[42] Quellen zur Geschichte Südwestafrikas, State Archives Windhoek, Volume 5: Vollmer (translation): 2 May 1848, p. 6

[43] Moritz E./Samuel Hahn: Reisen von Berseba nach dem Kaplande, 1852, p. 246 footnote

[44] Archives of the Rhenish Mission Society, Windhoek, 1852, Berichte (translation): p. 332-334. The Archives of the "RMS" are actually at Wuppertal, Germany and some are at "ELC", Windhoek.

[45] Hahn, Carl Hugo: Tagebücher 1837-1860: Part 3, Windhoek, Archives Publication Series No.3, 1985, p. 610-611 and 648-651

[46] Pollock, N.C. and Swanzie, A.: A Historical Geography of South Africa, Longmans, London, 1963

[47] Hahn, Carl Hugo: Tagebücher 1837-1860: Part 4, Windhoek Archives Source Publications Series No.4, 1985, p. 957-1081 and map on   p.977 (Karte zur Übersicht der Reise von H. Hahn and Rath im Südwestlichen Afrika, Mai-September 1857: A. Petermann) as well as p. 1196 and p. 1225-1228

[48] Williams, Frieda-Nela: Precolonial Communities of Southwestern Africa - A History of Owambo Kingdoms 1600-1920, Windhoek, 1991

[49] Andersson, Charles John: Papers, Vol.1: The Matchless Copper Mine in 1857: Correspondence, Windhoek Archives Source Publications Series No.7, 1987, p. 10; p. 18-20 and p. 82

[50] Wallis, J.P.R.: Fortune my Foe: The Story of Charles John Andersson, African Explorer 1827-1867, Jonathan Cape, London, 1936, p. 182-185

[51] Esterhuise, J.H.: South West Africa 1880-1894: The Establishment of German Authority in South West Africa, Cape Town, 1968, p. 11-12

[52] Vedder, Heinrich: Teil 3: Unter der Gewaltherrschaft von Okahandja aus: Kapitel 3: Kulturfortschritte and Kulturhindernisse: Post and Transport, p. 338 op.cit.

[53] Andersson, Charles John: The Okavango River - A Narrative of Travel, Exploration and Adventure, London, 1861

[54] Möller, P.-A.: Resa I Afrika, genom Angola, Ovampo och Damaraland, Stockholm, 1899, translated to: Journey in Africa, through Angola, Ovampoland and Damaraland, Cape Town, 1974, p. 15-19, p. 61

[55] BBNA (Cape) 1879, Palgrave to Secretary, 1 July 1877

[56] CA G 50-77, Palgrave: Report 12: Report of W.C. Palgrave, Esq., on his mission to Damaraland in 1876

[57] See last endnote, Hahn to Magistrate, 21 October 1872, Ann.III.

[58] Serton, P. ed.: The Narrative and Journal of Gerald Mc Kiernan in South West Africa 1874-1879, Cape Town, 1954, p. 23

[59] Hahn, Carl Hugo: Tagebücher 1837-1860: Part 5, Windhoek Archives Source Publications Series No.5, Ann.: Th. Hahn's Map, 1879

[60] Wilmsen, Edwin N.: Exchange, Interchange and Settlement in North-Western Botswana: Past and Present Perspectives, Proceedings of the Symposium: Settlement in Botswana, Gaborone, 1982, p. 98-100

[61] Letter from George Elers to Arthur Davis, 12.12.1906, ZBU, 6 XIII B 5 Vol.1, p. 65-69

[62] Möller, P.: Resa I Afrika, genom Angola, Ovampo och Damaraland, Stockholm, 1899, translation, Cape Town, 1974, p. 15-19

[63] The Bera River is a river east of the Angolan town of Mossamedes. Möller made his journey through southern Angola and northern Namibia from the Atlantic coast and the description of the ox-wagon trip from this town into the interior is identical to appropriate journeys in Namibia.

[64] Loopuyt, M.: The Arteries of S.W.A., South West Africa Yearbook, 1961, p. 47 op.cit.

[65] Dove, Karl: Deutsch-Südwestafrika: Ergebnisse einer wissenschaftlichen Reise im Südlichen Damaralande, Petermanns Mitteilungen, Berlin, 1896, p. 68 op.cit

[66] Drechsler, Horst: Südwestafrika unter deutscher Kolonialherrschaft, Berlin, 1984, p. 75-76 and p. 187

[67] Moir, Sydney M. and Crittenden, H.T.: Namib Narrow-Gauge, Janus Publishing, Benoryn, Republic of South Africa, 1982, p. 6-7

[68] "Jahresbericht über die Entwicklung der deutschen Schutzgebiete im Jahre 1896/97", Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, Berlin, 1898

[69] Dierks, Klaus: Schmalspureisenbahnen erschliessen Afrika's letzte Wildnis, Vom Schutzgebiet bis Namibia 1884-1984, Windhoek, 1985, p. 350 and Dierks, Klaus: Namibia's Railway System - Future Link to Africa, Harare, 1989, p. 8

[70] State Archives Windhoek: Official letters and circulars

[71] Rehbock, Th.: Deutsch-Südwest-Afrika - Seine wirtschaftliche Erschliessung - unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Nutzbarmachung des Wassers, Berlin, 1898, p. 28 and p. 208

[72] State Archives Windhoek: Official letters and circulars

[73] "Deutsches Schutzgebiet: Südwest-Afrika: Zusammenstellung von gemessenen Wegelängen: Bearbeitet im Bureau der Landesvermessung des Kaiserlichen Gouvernements in Windhoek im Mai 1902"

[74] Dierks, Klaus: Pfade, Pads and Autobahnen: Vom Schutzgebiet bis Namibia 1884-1984, Windhoek, 1985, p. 28

[75] All above mentioned letters can be found in the State Archives Windhoek in Volumes 1694 and 1695: "Wegebauten and Überbrückung von Flussläufen and Strassenbrücken" (A II 42) sowie "Wegebauten and Aufstellung von Wegweisern" (A II 43). See also: Dierks, Klaus: Pfade, Pads and Autobahnen, p. 357

[76] Ibid, p. 30

[77] Estorff, Ludwig von: Wanderungen and Kämpfe in Südwestafrika and Ostafrika and Südafrika, Windhoek, p. 155

[78] Report by the Mandatory Power to the League of Nations: 1927

[79] One British Pound is taken as two South African Rand, as has been the official Pound/ Rand relationship when the Rand was firstly introduced in 1961.

[80] Submission to the International Court at the Hague: The Development of Roads and Bridges in the Territory of South West Africa covering the Period 1920 - 1965, Windhoek, 1965, p. 7

[81] Report by the Mandatory Power to the League of Nations: 1932

[82] Submission to the International Court at the Hague: The Development of Roads and Bridges in the Territory of South West Africa covering the Period 1920 - 1965, Windhoek, 1965, p. 8

[83] Report of the Mandatory Power to the League of Nations: 1937

[84] Dierks, Klaus: Pfade, Pads and Autobahnen, p. 32

[85] Submission to the International Court at the Hague: The Development of Roads and Bridges in the Territory of South West Africa covering the Period 1920 - 1965, Windhoek, 1965, p. 10

[86] Ibid, p. 11

[87] Dierks, Klaus: Pfade, Pads and Autobahnen: Vom Schutzgebiet bis Namibia 1884 - 1984, Windhoek, 1985, p. 32

[88] Submission to the International Court at the Hague: The Development of Roads and Bridges in the Territory of South West Africa covering the Period 1920 - 1965, Windhoek, 1965, p. 14

[89] Ibid

[90] One of the most difficult passes on main road 52 was named after one of the first roads engineers in Namibia: Mr G. Bosua, a civil engineer from South Africa.

[91] Report by the Mandatory Power to the League of Nations: 1946

[92]  Submission to the International Court at the Hague: The Development of Roads and Bridges in the Territory of South West Africa covering the Period 1920 - 1965, Windhoek, 1965, p. 20

[93] Quite a few structures from this official list of road structures have been replaced by modern ones in the meantime. All listed "Old Roads" have been re-aligned with new structures built on them: See Appendix Table 4

[94] Submission to the International Court at the Hague: The Development of Roads and Bridges in the Territory of South West Africa covering the Period 1920 - 1965, Windhoek, 1965, p. 33: Ordinance 17 of 1953

[95] Ibid, p. 36

[96] Annual Report: Roads Department of the Administration for South West Africa: 1956/57

[97] Submission to the International Court at the Hague: The Development of Roads and Bridges in the Territory of South West Africa covering the Period 1920 - 1965, Windhoek, 1965, p. 40

[98] Ibid, p. 64

[99] Ibid, p. 50

[100] Odendaal Report: Report of the Commission of Inquiry into South West African Affairs, Pretoria, 1964

[101] This statistic is valid for the 30 September 1986 as derived from the relevant databank in the Central Computer System of the Department of Transport. 185 km of surfaced roads were 1986 under construction: main road 65 Outjo - Khorixas: approx. 132 km and the first section of trunk road 8/4: Rundu-Bagani: 57 km. The road lengths include roads in the South-Africa occupied enclave of Walvis Bay with a total length of main roads of 86,2 km and surfaced main roads of 46,55 km.

[102] Guesstimate of all existing traffic counts as stored on databank in the Central Computer System of the Department of Transport.

[103] German Development Institute: Sektorstudie: Materielle Infrastruktur, Berlin, 1979

[104] Trunk roads 1/5 Windhoek-Rehoboth, 1/6 Windhoek-Okahandja and 6/1 Windhoek-Windhoek International Airport

[105] Department of Transport: Resultate van 'n Vragvervoeropname wat gedurende Augustus 1984 in Suidwes Afrika uitgevoer is, Van Wyk and Louw, Pretoria, 27 November 1984. This report, together with the "Welgemoed Verslag" of 1981 formed the basis for the "Verslag van die Advieskomitee vir Vervoerdienste in Suidwes-Afrika/Namibia" of 28 February 1986. Above "Vragvervoeropname" is replenished by a further study by Van Wyk and Louw, Pretoria: which is prepared on instruction of the Department of Transport: Road Quality System for SWA/Namibia: Investigation into Technical Aspects: Final Report on the Status Quo, September 1986.

[106] Verslag van die Advieskomitee vir Vervoerdienste in Suidwes Afrika/Namibia, Windhoek, 28 February 1986, p. 56

[107] The centralised Department of Transport came into being by Proclamation A.G. No. 14 of 13 March 1978

[108] The Path to Progress, Group Editors, 1973

[109] Dierks, Klaus: ||Khauxa!nas - Schans Vlakte: Oldest Urban Settlement in Namibia? : A Symbol for Independence, In Formation No. 1, Windhoek, 1987.

[110] Dierks, Klaus: ||Khauxa!nas - The Great Namibian Settlement, Windhoek, 1992

[111] Lau, B.: The Emergence of Kommando Politics in Namaland, Southern Namibia, 1800-1870: Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Arts, University of Cape Town, for the Degree of Master of Arts, 1982, p. 364-370 op.cit.

[112] Submission to the International Court at the Hague: The Development of Roads and Bridges in the Territory of South West Africa covering the Period 1920-1965, Windhoek, 1965, p. 1 and 4-7

[113] Hinz, Patemann, Meier: Weiss auf Schwarz - Kolonialismus, Apartheid and Afrikanischer Widerstand, Bevor die Weissen kamen, Elefanten Press Verlag, Berlin, 1986, p. 12

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