ENDNOTES

[1] See inter alia: Dierks, Klaus: Appropriate Community Schemes for Independent Namibia, Development Report for "Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau", Windhoek, 1989
[2] Dierks, Klaus: Appropriate Community Schemes for Independent Namibia, Development Report for "Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau", Windhoek, 1989, p.140
[3] A classical example in this regard is the two-hundred-millions project of the 'Eastern National Water Carrier', an open canal and pipeline system, built since the early 1980s, which transports water from the water-rich Karst regions between Otavi and Grootfontein via the Omatako- and Swakop dams to Windhoek and which now is under consideration to be covered with concrete slabs in its entirety because it is not functional and represents a first order ecological disaster (R 40 Millions plus!).
[4] Council of Churches in Namibia: Community Development Unit: Progress Report: July - December 1988, Windhoek, p.1-2
[5] This was the reason that it was difficult to obtain reliable data by the 'D.o.W.' in creating this study during 1988 and 1989.
[6] Department of Water Affairs: SWA/Namibia: Perspective on Water Supply in Namibia, Windhoek, 1989, p.1-2
[7] Department of Water Affairs: Annual Report: 1986/87, Windhoek
[8] Compare this with the 4,64% of proclaimed roads in Ovamboland in relationship to the total proclaimed roads system in Namibia (1.927 km against 41.572 km on the 30 September 1986)
[9] The costs of pipelines during 1988 were approx. R 500.000/km. This price was obtained during a tender for a pipeline from Okahau to Ogongo.
[10] Department of Water Affairs: 'Die Ondersoek na die Kanaalsisteem in Owambo, Windhoek, 1983, p.1-18
[11] Dierks, Klaus: Feasibility Planning Report: Water Supply and Sewerage Situation at R.C. Mission Station at Anamulenge/Ombalantu, Ovamboland, Windhoek, 1989, p.3
[12] These effects were not thoroughly investigated in the case of pumping grand-scale water from the Karst areas between Grootfontein and Otavi into the canal of the 'Eastern National Water Carrier' with disastrous consequences like the lowering of the ground water table by several meters with the resulting general death of many indigenous trees and negative influences on farming in this area. The 'E.L.C.'-farm of Ghaub between Grootfontein and Tsumeb is situated in one of the water-richest regions of Namibia with formerly an abundance of water. Due to the uncontrolled pumping of water out of this area a serious water supply situation had arisen with the consequence that this church-owned farm could not be used as 'Secondary Center' for the returnee program according to 'UNO-Resolution 435'.
[13] Dierks, Klaus: Appropriate Community Schemes for Independent Namibia, Development Report for "Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau", Windhoek, 1989, p.151
[14] Dierks, Klaus: Appropriate Community Schemes for Independent Namibia, Development Report for "Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau", Windhoek, 1989, p.152
[15] The names Kunene and Okavango were thought to be originated from the Namibian community of the Hereros who migrated possibly between the two rivers southwards. It is still held that 'Okavango' means 'lying to the left', while 'Kunene' refers to 'the right-hand-side'. These interpretations can be refuted in the light of current historical research and linguistic analyses. 'Okavango' is to my knowledge the first time used by C.J.Andersson in 'The Okavango River, London, 1861'. This name for the river is recently disputed and, therefore, since the 1970s, generally the name 'Kavango' is used instead. See: Fisch, Maria: Ursprung und Bedeutung des Namens Okavango, SWA Scientific Society, Windhoek, 1987. But, Fisch's interpretations are also not convincing as far the interpretation of the names 'Okavango/Kavango' are concerned, especially since the Angolans call the upper course of the Okavango River 'Cubango'. Due to these uncertainties the original name 'Okavango' will be used in this study.
[16] Stengel, H.W.: The Cuvelai - A Contribution to the Hydrography of South West Africa, Windhoek, 1963, p.368 ff
[17] An oshana or omuramba is a valley of very low gradient, covered with bush and grass, through which water is flowing without developing a well-defined flood channel. The banks are lined with trees and bushes and water often concentrates in shallow pools and small pans. The term 'oshana', in the Oshivambo language, is used in Ovamboland while the Otjiherero word 'omuramba' is used in other parts of Namibia.
[18] The evaporation losses in Germany are, as a comparison, between 800 and 900 mm per annum.
[19] Lempp, Ferdinand: The Ovamboland Water Scheme, Windhoek, 1963, p.357-360
[20] Dierks, Klaus: Der verfassungsmäßige Aufbau von SWA/Namibia: 1884-1980, Windhoek, 1980, p.14: 'Herreelingswet' of 1969
[21] Dierks, Klaus: Appropriate Community Schemes for Independent Namibia, Development Report for "Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau", Windhoek, 1989, p.156
[22] Dierks, Klaus: Appropriate Community Schemes for Independent Namibia, Development Report for "Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau", Windhoek, 1989, p.157
[23] Stengel, H.W.: Evaporation and Sedimentation in Storage Dams, Windhoek, 1963, p.417-419
[24] Dansk Rodzone Teknik: Identification Study for Constructing Root Zone Plants in Owamboland, South West Africa/Namibia, Viborg, 1986, p.28-30
[25] Council of Churches in Namibia: Community Development Unit: Progress Report: July - December 1988, Windhoek, p.8
[26] Dierks, Klaus: Appropriate Community Schemes for Independent Namibia, Development Report for "Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau", Windhoek, 1989, p.160
[27] Dierks, Klaus: A.M.E.C.: Water Project: Gibeon/Namibia: Uncompleted Feasibility Study Report, Windhoek, October 1988. The investigations for this promising community project were, for the time being, discontinued due to the fact that the funding of the project has not been ascertained yet..
[28] Council of Churches in Namibia: Community Development Unit: Progress Report: July - December 1988, Windhoek, p.6
[29] United Nations Institute for Namibia: Perspectives for National Reconstruction and Development: Chapter 4: Water Resources, Lusaka, 1986, p.172-173
[30] Namibia Consult Incorporated: Dierks, Klaus: Preliminary Report for Otjovasandu Camp and Halfway Camp: Water, Sewerage and Roads, Project: 1987/1, January 1988
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