ENDNOTES

[1] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[2] There exists considerable confusion amongst highway engineers about the term "road maintenance". Therefore it was thought to be more prudent to use rather the term "road conservation" because conservation is not only applicable to natural resources but to roads as well.
[3] Effectiveness is to do the right things and efficiency is to do things rightly.
[4] Dierks, Klaus: Namibian Roads in History: From the 13th Century till Today, Frankfurt, 1992 and United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[5] Dierks, Klaus: Technical Aspects for Low-Volume Roads in Namibia, Ph.-D. thesis, Berlin, 1992
[6] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[7] Dierks, Klaus: If you do your Homework - We will get 18 Millions: My Personal Experience with Donor Aid to the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication, Windhoek, 1993
[8] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[9] Dierks, Klaus: Technical Aspects for Low-Volume Roads in Namibia, Ph.-D. thesis, Berlin, 1992
[10] Dierks, Klaus: Technical Aspects for Low-Volume Roads in Namibia, Ph.-D. thesis, Berlin, 1992
[11] Approx. 15% of the total Namibian paved road network is older than 30 years and 60 % older than 20 years.
[12] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[13] Dierks, Klaus: Summarised Key Points on the Policy on Road User Charging in Namibia, Windhoek, 1994
[14] In Germany ("Der Stern" 8/93) research has revealed that in Germany the annual social damage costs for air pollution are N$ 70 billions, N$ 100 billions for noise pollution, N$ 40 billions for polluted ground water and N$ 150 billions for the costs for road related accidents. Would all these costs be recovered from the road users in Germany fuel should cost more than N$ 12,00 per litre.
[15] Various organisations, including the World Bank, have studied diverse ways of charging for road use. The results of these studies show that the inclusion of the road charge into the fuel price is by far the most economical method because the collection cost is less than 1% of the amount collected..
[16] Interesting here is that the cost responsibility for different road-class users (different pavements and different traffic loads) is different. This is due to different road conservation costs for different pavements and due to the economy of scale for different traffic loads (for instance: the routine road conservation costs for rural, low-volume gravel or earth roads is thirty times higher than on highly trafficked urban, paved roads) (See Annexure 4).
[17] On the revenue side fuel levies have produced N$ 194 million and license fees N$ 22 million for 1993/94.
[18] The measure of damage is increasing with the mass of a vehicle with the power of 4,2 under Namibian conditions.
[19] Dierks, Klaus: Technical Aspects for Low-Volume Roads in Namibia, Ph.-D. thesis, Berlin, 1992
[20] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[21] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[22] Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu International: Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication: Directorate Transportation, Infrastructure Maintenance and Construction: Report on the analysis of the Construction and Maintenance Divisions operations as part of the phase 1 study towards commercialisation: Working Document - Version 2, Windhoek, August 1995
[23] The absenteeism rates stood at approximately 37% in 1995.
[24] Dierks, Klaus: Key Points on a New Policy on the Restructuring of the Government Garage of the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication, Windhoek, 1994
[25] Especially the road conservation output of the approx. 60 Bitumen Maintenance Units responsible for the routine maintenance of bitumen surfaced roads like the patching of small pot-holes and the sealing of cracks, the repairing, cleaning and grass cutting of shoulders etc. is generally unsatisfactory. With the normal administrative means at the disposal of the Ministry discipline and accountability cannot be established any more. Therefore urgent privatisation of these services is indicated.
[26] Own observations and Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu International: Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication: Directorate Transportation, Infrastructure Maintenance and Construction: Report on the analysis of the Construction and Maintenance Divisions operations as part of the phase 1 study towards commercialisation: Working Document - Version 2, Windhoek, August 1995
[27] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[28] Dierks, Klaus: Technical Aspects for Appropriate Low-Volume Roads in Namibia, Ph.-D. thesis, Berlin, 1992
[29] Dierks, Klaus: Technical Aspects for Appropriate Low-Volume Roads in Namibia, Ph.-D.-Thesis, Berlin, 1992
[30] Namibian research has established that an unpaved road with roughnesses between IRI=7,00 and 9,00 is regarded as undesirable. Therefore, for a cost/quality optimised road conservation model, it was decided to take a road with an IRI=7,50 as an offset point which is extreme under Namibian conditions. With average grader maintenance costs of US$ 36/km (US $ 6,00/blade km: 6 blades wide) and with savings of vehicle operating costs for an improvement of an unpaved road from IRI=7,50 to IRI=5,00 it can be derived from figure 1 that for an 'ADT' of 100 (85% light, 15% heavy) a grading of 17 times/year is cost/quality optimised. (VOC-Savings=US $ 9.400 - US $ 7.600/km/year = US $ 1.800; with 3:1 principle US $ 600/km/year can be spent: US $ 600/36 results in a grading cycle of 17 times per year). However, it has to be stated that under Namibian conditions a VOC-saving/maintenance relationship of a 3:1 ratio represents a rather low level of maintenance. To date the Namibian road user is used to a higher maintenance level of 3:1 for such traffic load (ADT=100) under average conditions which probably is too high if cost/quality optimised.
[31] Figure 2 shows that it would be advantageous to improve a bad unpaved road (IRI=7,50) to a good gravel road (IRI=5,00) (US$ 20.000 /km) for a traffic load of more than 40 vehicles per day, for instance by adding a gravel wearing course to an earth road. In the absence of suitable natural road building materials for such a road it would be advantageous to pave such a road (IRI=7,50) to an appropriate low cost-level (IRI=4,30) (US$ 25.000/km) for a traffic load of more than 70 vehicles per day or to another appropriate low-volume paved level (US$ 55.000/km) for more than 125 vehicles per day. It would be advantageous to improve a bad unpaved road to a paved road level with favourable geometric and drainage properties (US$ 82.500/km) for more than 190 vehicles per day while it will be not cost/quality optimised to surface a good unpaved road (IRI=5,00) carrying less than 110 vehicles per day, even for appropriate low-volume spoorbaan road level. To build a full-scale conventional paved road (US$ 138.000/km) will only be cost/quality optimised for a bad unpaved road carrying more than 330 vehicles per day or a good gravel road carrying more than 500 vehicles per day, events which so far were seldomly encountered in Namibia. Aspects like timing and accident costs as well as performance factors like dust and all-year-traffic-ability and social factors like labour-intensiveness are difficult to quantify, but these factors play a role to justify the construction of a paved road at levels below above cost/quality optimised levels (shadow-pricing). It should also be borne in mind that above criteria are broad boundaries only. Every project has to be investigated individually to establish the real individual optimal point of surfacing an unpaved road, taking into account all factors. (Costs were calculated for December 1989 and have to be accordingly escalated).
[32] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[33] See last endnote
[34] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[35] Income should not be confused with profits. Within the framework of a Road Network Management System there cannot be talk of profits and losses. The new System only spends what is necessary and sets the income levels accordingly.
[36] These "own" work forces must be minimised in order to avoid the creation of a perpetuated monopoly where it is not necessary.
[37] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[38] A natural monopoly will only be created if the Authority still has executive functions and executive tasks will not be put on contract.
[39] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[40] Dierks, Klaus: Summarised Key Points on the White Paper on Transport Policy in Namibia, Windhoek 1994
[41] United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean: Roads - A New Approach for Road Network Management and Conservation, Santiago/Chile, 1993
[42] The following more important departmental road conservation works done during 1994/95, with a budget allocation of N$ 136,05 million, were executed (no reseals; no rehabilitation of paved roads):
- 538 km                   gravelled @ N$ 79.500 per km
- 236 km            bush clearing @ N$ 8.550 per km
- 1.276.545 blade km graded @ N$ 27 per blade km
The Conservation Budget for 1995/96 is N$ 144,98 million.
[43] The Road User Charging System (especially the "Weight Distance Charges") is still not fully implemented by December 2000.
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