4. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: GERMAN RULE
4.1 INITIAL PERIOD OF GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA (SWA): 1884-1889
|1884||The first phase of German
colonialism is characterised by a lack of experience and improvisation.
The communities of the Fwe, Yeyi, Mayuni, Mbukushu, Totela, Subiya and Kxoé in the present-day Caprivi Strip are part of the Barotse kingdom under King Lewanika. They are Lozi subjects . One of the district chiefs is Simata Mamili ("Mamili" is a title; others are "Siluka" and "Mwanota"). Lewanika creates the districts Mashi (Mayuni)(capital Kaunga) and Sesheke-Mwandi (not to be confused with Sesheke in present-day Zambia).
King Namadi ya Mweihanyeka dies. His successor is the thirteenth Uukwanyama King Ueyulu ya Hedimbi (1884-1904).
The Chief of the Kai||khaun from Hoachanas, |Gâberob #Goraxamab, suppresses a rebellion of Isaak !Noëteb and his followers.
The brothers Petersen secure from the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Wilhelm Christian, more than a quarter of a million acres at Aussenkjer at the Oranje River.
|24.01.||The German war ship Nautilus visits (under the command of Captain Richard Aschenborn) Angra Pequeña in order to evaluate the territory sold to Lüderitz. Aschenborn supports the deal but warns that the South African Government of the Cape Colony could raise claims to land up to the Angolan border in the north.|
|26.02.||After in-depth discussions with Lüderitz, Aschenborn leaves Angra Pequeña and sails to Cape Town. From there he transmits his (supportive) report to the German Government.|
|24.04.||Germany promises to protect the
territory sold to Lüderitz and thus supports this colonialist venture.
Memorial Plaquette for Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz at Shark
Island, (Angra Pequeña, later Lüderitz)
|April||Lüderitz organises a mining expedition under the leadership of Carl Hoepfner order to investigate the minerals potential in the territory. Participants are the geologists and mining engineers Waldemar Belck, Adolf Schenck, Mertens, Georg Gürich, Prescher and Hermann Spengler.|
|04.06.||A mining rights treaty is signed with the Baster community of Rehoboth.|
|14.06.||Hendrik Witbooi, later also called "!Nanseb |Gabemab", moves against the Ovaherero under Maharero who had moved in 1883 to Onguheva, south of Aris.|
|24.06.||Hendrik Witbooi makes peace with Maharero after an indecisive battle in Onguheva. It is arranged that Windhoek and Gobabis, which have been destroyed, will be rebuilt.|
|14.07.||Great Britain recognises the German possessions in the territory by way of an official telegram.|
|25.07.||The Cape Legislative Assembly in Cape Town passes a law incorporating the Walvis Bay Enclave into the South African Cape Colony.|
||The German flag is officially hoisted at Angra Pequeña (German battleships "Leipzig" (Captain Otto Friedrich Wilhelm Herbig) and "Elisabeth" (Captain Rudolf Schering)).|
|08.08.||Walvis Bay is formally transferred to the Cape Colony by Cape Governor Hercules Robinson.|
|12.08.||The German flag is officially hoisted at the Swakop River mouth (Tsaochaubmund), later also at Sandwich Harbour and Cape Frio (German battleship "Wolf").|
|19.08.||A private treaty is agreed between Lüderitz and Piet Haibib of the Topnaar in Scheppmannsdorf. This treaty includes all mining rights. Ludwig Koch becomes Lüderitzs authorised agent to conclude all treaties.|
|01.09.||Maharero again moves with his
people to Okahandja.
Lüderitz sends his brother August and the geologist Carl Hoepfner to Okahandja to negotiate an agreement with Maharero. Due to the efforts of trader Lewis the negotiations are unsuccessful.
|05.09.||The coastal zone between the Oranje and Kunene Rivers is declared a "protectorate" of the German Reich.|
|19.09.||In a proclamation in Otjiherero and German, Maharero declares himself "King of Hereroland".|
|22.09.||The British Government declares: "Her Majestys Government will welcome Germany as a neighbour on those parts which are not within the limit of the Cape Colony, and not actually British possessions."|
|26.09.||The ninth King Iitana yaNekwiyu from the Ondonga area in Ovamboland dies. He is succeeded by two Ondonga kings: King Kambonde kaMpingana (1884-1909) with the capital Onamayongo (or Okaloko according to other oral evidence)(western Ondonga) and King Nehale (1884-1908) with the capital Onayena in the Oshitambi area (eastern Ondonga). The Finnish Missionary Society supports King Kambonde with weapons and ammunition against King Nehale because King Nehale was perceived to be an "enemy of the European mission work in Africa".|
|September||The precise delimitation of Walvis Bays borders is initiated under the joint control of the German Consul in Cape Town, Bieber, and the British judge, Shippard. Shippard soon unilaterally decides to change the border fixing that involves a discrepancy between Rooibank and Rooikop, and to include in the enclave the water-rich Kuiseb delta along with the Ururas locale.|
|07.10.||After having been appointed Commissioner for West Africa Gustav Nachtigal arrives with German battleship Möwe in Angra Pequeña.|
||A private treaty is concluded
between Hermanus van Wyk of Rehoboth and the geologist Carl Hoepfner. The treaty includes
all mining rights. The mining rights are not exploited for many years.
A mining rights treaty is concluded with the Ovaherero.
|28.10.||A protection treaty is agreed between Joseph Frederiks II of Bethany and Gustav Nachtigal, this being the first such treaty between Germany and the territorys indigenous communities.|
|08.11.||Palgrave returns to the territory
to persuade Maharero to accept British protection instead of German protection (his fifth
official journey to the territory).
Vogelsang travels to Okahandja in order to negotiate a protection treaty with Maharero. He is unsuccessful.
|23./26.11.||An agreement of sale is signed by Lüderitz and Piet Haibib of the Topnaar in Scheppmannsdorf.|
|24.11.||Chief Tjaherani from Omburo dies. He is succeeded by Manasse Tyiseseta (25.11.1884-26.07.1898).|
||Bismarck advises Bieber to
establish an eastern boundary at 24° east longitude, which would include more than 50% of
present-day Botswana (east of the towns of Maun and Sekoma).
Lüderitz erects trading posts at Angra Pequeña, Bethany, Kubub (near Aus) and Aus. They all make losses.
|18.12.||Hanna Kleinschmidt, née Schmelen, dies in Otjimbingwe.|
|1884/85||The Conference of Berlin
("Congo Conference") confirms Germanys right to appropriate the territory.
Rhenish missionary Carl Gotthilf Büttner discovers the rock paintings at Ameib in the Erongo Mountains (Phillips Cave)(C1 Period: between 4400 and 1200 B.C.).