|1885||British surveyor Phillip Wrey is
sent by Shippard to Walvis Bay to unilaterally survey a "revised" border line
between Walvis Bay and German South West Africa (Südwestafrika) in its
south-eastern sector, which now includes Ururas.
The Mbukushu people in the present-day Caprivi Strip become a point of conflict between King Moremi II (1876-1890) of the Tswana (also Tawana) people in present-day Botswana and King Lewanika of the Lozi.
From the early 1880s the Portuguese attack the Ombandja area in South Angola. They occupy the Onghumbi area with its capital Omutano. In 1885 the two Ombandja kingdoms under the command of the kings Shatona from Omhungu and Haikela from Onaluheke attack the Portuguese garrison Omutano. These attacks are not successful.
Axel Eriksson sets out from Omaruru and moves to the Okavango River and beyond to Lake Ngami in present-day Botswana.
|Beginning 1885||Vogelsang receives an offer from Maharero who is now prepared to accept German protection despite Palgraves ongoing efforts to annex the territory for Great Britain.|
|01.02.||Lüderitz's vessel Tilly sinks off the coast of Angra Pequeña. Lüderitz is consequently forced to sell his rights to a private company, the subsequent Deutsche Kolonialgesell- schaft für Südwest-Afrika (DKGSWA).|
|03.02.||Palgrave is recalled by the Cape authorities.|
|21.02.||A private treaty is agreed between Jan Jonker Afrikaner of the Orlam Afrikaners and Lüderitz.|
|21.04.||William Worthington Jordan buys 50 000 km2 of land from Ondonga King Kambonde. Jordan calls this area "Republic Upingtonia" and a group of "Dorsland Trekkers" from Angola settles there in the area of Otavi and Otjiwanda (Oshivambo: Oshaandashongwe; Khoekhoegowab: Kai|aub)(present-day Grootfontein) which includes the copper mines at Tsumeb. This deal increases the tensions between the two kings Kambonde and Nehale. Jordan is murdered in 1886 in Ondonga and the Republic Upingtonia is dissolved (June 1887).|
Kolonialgesellschaft für Südwest-Afrika (DKGSWA) is founded. The establishment of
the company is supported by German bankers (Gerson von Bleichröder, Adolph von
Hansemann), industrialists (Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck) and politicians
(Frankfurt Mayor Johannes von Miquel). The DKGSWA soon buys the possessions of the nearly
bankrupt Lüderitz, especially his mining rights. This is in line with Bismarcks
policy that private rather than state capital should be used to develop the colony. The
DKGSWA is not successful in its endeavour to exploit mineral deposits until much later,
when diamonds are finally discovered.
The rights of the DKGSWA are to be maintained by protection treaties. For that purpose Heinrich Ernst Göring is appointed as Commissioner of Germany. Göring concentrates his efforts on Hereroland while the former Rhenish missionary Büttner who is recalled by the German Government to SWA, works in Namaland.
The DKGSWA is followed by some English real estate and mining companies which are supported by Cecil Rhodes. Private German capital only begins to flow into the colony after 1900. A total of seven main private real estate and mining companies come into existence: DKGSWA (1885); South West Africa Company (SWAC, 1892); Kharaskhoma-Syndicate (1892); Hanseatische Land-, Minen- und Handelsgesellschaft für SWA (1893); Kaoko Land- und Minengesellschaft (1895); Otavi-Minen und Eisenbahngesellschaft (OMEG, 1900); Gibeon Schürf- und Handelsgesellschaft (1903).
||Heinrich Ernst Göring is sent to
SWA as Commissioner of Germany.
The first German Administration is established in Otjimbingwe (the first office is established in the building of the Augustineum), its first officials being Göring, Louis Nels and Hugo von Goldammer.
|16.05.||A private treaty is concluded between Jan Jonker Afrikaner of the Orlam Afrikaners and Lüderitz regarding the sale of ground around Windhoek. This treaty includes all mining rights.|
|June||A Swiss botanist finds Windhoek
Missionary Büttner tries to conclude a private treaty with the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Wilhelm Christian, but is however unsuccessful because Christian does not want to lose his good links with the government of the Cape Colony.
||A private treaty is concluded between Lüderitz and Cornelius Swartbooi, successor to Abraham Swartbooi, regarding the selling of communal ground in parts of the Kaokoveld. This treaty includes all mining rights.|
|04.07.||A private treaty is concluded between Lüderitz and Jan Uixamab of the Zesfontein Topnaar (!Gomen) regarding the selling of communal ground.|
|Mid-July||Hendrik Witbooi, who vehemently opposes the "selling of ground" to, and the establishment of "protection treaties" with the Germans, moves to Rehoboth. Theodor Leutwein later reports that the majority of "protection treaties" were established under direct German military pressure.|
|28.07.||A protection treaty is concluded between Jakobus Isaak of Berseba and missionary Büttner.|
|02.09.||A protection treaty is concluded between Manasse !Noreseb of Hoachanas (!Hoaxa!nâs) and Germany (Carl Gotthilf Büttner).|
|15.09.||A protection treaty is concluded between Hermanus van Wyk of Rehoboth and Germany.|
|30.09.||The British High Commissioner for South Africa declares the territory to 22° south and 20° east as "British Bechuanaland", in contrast to the German claim to have the eastern border of the German colony fixed at 24° east.|
|17.10.||Hendrik Witbooi is defeated by Maharero in the battle of Osona (Witbooi loses his two sons: Jeremia and Salomo, a third one, Jesaias, is wounded), although both sides were prepared to strengthen the peace agreement of Onguheva. Witbooi moves to Gurumanas. During the same period Moses Witbooi moves to Warmbad to avoid being forced into a "protection treaty" by the Germans (with the involvement of missionary Büttner).|
|21.10.||A protection treaty is concluded
between Maharero of Okahandja and Göring in the presence of Secretary Nels and
missionaries Diehl and Büttner. Göring later notes that Diehl and Büttner convince
Maharero even though he (Göring) has his doubts that Maharero has the right to sign on
behalf of all Hereroland.
Maharero does, however, not cede any land to the Germans and never promises to do so. In his eyes the missionaries have compromised seriously themselves as allies of the Germans. Consequently Maharero orders that all the German officials have to leave, and the mission church in Okahandja has to be closed. The missionaries are allowed to stay in Hereroland although the bonds of trust and friendship between Rhenish missionaries and the Ovaherero that have previously existed, are now destroyed.
|03.11.||A protection treaty is concluded between Manasse Tyiseseta of Omaruru and Göring in the presence of missionary Büttner. In spite of this treaty Manasse manages to maintain a polity independent from the Germans and Maharero. This independence is based on sound trade links with the Cape Colony for arms and ammunition as well as a disciplined armed force. In the late 1880s, following the arrival of German colonial forces in central SWA, Manasse Tyiseseta continues to seek political independence.|
|05.12.||Göring again tries to force Moses
Witbooi into a "protection treaty", to no avail. Witbooi Council members who
receive the Germans are severely punished by Moses Witbooi after his return to Gibeon.
Rhenish missionary Heinrich Friedrich Gottlieb Rust is restricted in his usage of the
Former Rhenish missionary Carl Gotthilf Büttner demands that Hendrik Witbooi should be "eliminated" as he constitutes a major threat to all German interests in the territory.