4. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: GERMAN RULE
4.2 THE ACTIVE RESISTANCE STRUGGLE BEGINS: 1890-1903
||Imperial Germany declares its
protectorate a "Crown Colony". Britain, hesitant about plans to link the German
colony with the Republic of Transvaal, declares Bechuanaland a protectorate, and the
eastern borders are regulated following this fait accompli.
The last Orlam Afrikaners are killed off by a malaria epidemic.
At the invitation of King Tshaanika Tsha Natshilongo, the Rhenish Missionary Society sends out two missionaries, August Wulfhorst and Friedrich Meisenholl, to work in the Ongandjera area in Ovamboland. On their way to Okahao they are stopped by King Negumbo of the Uukwambi area. Thereafter they are invited by King Ueyulu ya Hedimbi to establish mission stations in the Uukwanyama area instead (which they do in 1891).
|January||The Schutztruppe force comprises 50
soldiers, who are stationed at Tsaobis, Neu-Heusis and Okahandja.
The Ruin of the "Kurt von Francois Fortress" which was
established in January 1890 to protect the Road from Otjimbingwe via Tsaobis to the new
Capital of German South West Africa (Windhoek) at Heusis (Alt Heusis) in the Khomas
Hochland, October 2004
|14.04.||The Augustineum College is moved from Otjimbingwe to Okahandja under the leadership of missionary Viehe. The college has 14 students at this time.|
|19.05.||A sale of land treaty is agreed between the Kharaskhoma-Syndicate and Chief Tseib of the Kharo-!oan in Keetmanshoop. This treaty includes all mining rights.|
|20.05.||Göring writes to Hendrik Witbooi from Okahandja to make peace and to urge him to move from Hornkranz to Gibeon. He further informs Witbooi that the Ovaherero are again under German protection.|
|29.05.||In his reply Hendrik Witbooi informs Göring that the Witbooi Nama will maintain their independence. Witbooi is the only leader who consistently refuses to sign a protection treaty with the Germans.|
|30.05.||Hendrik Witbooi writes to Samuel Maharero, stating: "You will eternally regret that you have given your land and your right to rule into the hands of the whites."|
|25.06.||The Finnish Missionary Society establishes a mission station at Ondangwa.|
|01.07.||The Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty is
signed by Britain and Germany, whereby Germany accepts the northern high-water line of the
Oranje River as the boundary with South Africa.
The eastern boundary along 20° east to 22° south, and from there (" Rietfontein corner angle") along 21° east to the Caprivi Strip, is established.
For the formation of the Caprivi Strip, and to give Germany access to the Zambezi River, 18° south is accepted as the northern border of British Bechuanaland. The border continuation to the east is the lower course of the Chobe River, and from there along the thalweg (main channel) of the Chobe River into the confluence with the Zambezi River ( quadruple point between present-day Namibia, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe). The thalweg of the Chobe River, however, is not demarcated due to the rivers undefined swamp-like character. This later leads to several Chobe River island disputes (still not resolved to the present-day). It is soon discovered, however, that an insistence on 18° south, with an agreed strip of 20 English miles (32 km), would mean that, contrary to the treaty, the border with Angola would overlap German and Portuguese territories, and the mission station to be established later at Andara, as well as the residence of King Dimbu I on Thipanana Island in the Okavango River, would fall into British Bechuanaland. The colonial boundary between Angola and German South West Africa was already established in 1886 as a straight line between the Andara rapids in the Okavango River and the Katima rapids in the Zambezi River. The "20-mile rule" from the agreed Angola/German South West Africa border to the south rescues the situation for now, but a new dispute arises (lasting until 1929) regarding the unsurveyed southern border of the Caprivi Strip falling between the Okavango and Chobe Rivers. The Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty overlooks the fact that the border between the Katima rapids and the confluence with the Zambezi River along the border with Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia) (the thalweg of the Zambezi River) is not established. A diplomatic note of 1910 attempts to rectify the situation but remains unanswered by Great Britain for the next two decades. The Lozi people from Barotseland (present-day Zambia) continue to use some areas in the Caprivi Strip, with some restrictions placed on this usage by the German authorities (as from 1909; " Barotse privileges").
The disputed Walvis Bay border delimitation is reserved for arbitration.
||A sale of land treaty is agreed between the Kharaskhoma-Syndicate and the Chief of the Veldschoendragers (||Hawoben), Jan Hendrik. This treaty includes all mining rights.|
|August||Göring departs, leaving Louis Nels as acting commissioner (until Von Francois takes over in 1891).|
|21.08.||A protection treaty is agreed
between Göring and the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Wilhelm Christian.
A protection treaty is agreed between Göring and the Chief of the Veldschoendragers, Jan Hendrik.
|15.09.||Hendrik Witbooi attacks and destroys Otjimbingwe after the Ovaherero, hoping for German protection which was not forthcoming,.try to pursue the Nama.|
|07.10.||Maharero dies and is buried in Okahandja alongside his father, Tjamuaha.|
|18.10.||Von Francois uses Windhoek as his
headquarters. The "Alte Feste" ("old fortress") is erected (completed
in 1892). Von Francois brings 200 Dama and Nama from Tsaobis to help with the construction
work on the Fort. He recalls the Dama to be the best workers, and also how their wives
laughingly perform miracles with the carrying of the stones for the building.
At this time 32 German soldiers, 150 Dama and 50 Nama (Orlam Afrikaner and Kai||khaun) live in Windhoek.
|28.10.||There is uncertainty on whether
Samuel Maharero will succeed in usurping the chieftainship. Maharero is a faithful
follower of the Rhenish Missionary Society and consequently the colonial authorities
first choice as a candidate in the election of a new chieftain. Samuels rival,
Nikodemus Kavikunua, is not supported by the Germans.
To gain German support Samuel renews the protection treaty.
|November||The Board of the Rhenish Missionary society urges the German Government that it is vitally important to "crush" Hendrik Witbooi as soon as possible.|