6 JUDGEMENT OF NAMPORT PLANS FOR WALVIS BAY PORT UPGRADING

6.1 TRAFFIC PROGNOSIS

According to the Pre-Feasibility Study of Future Port Facilities [27] in Namibia and table 10 in this study [28] it was determined that in the year 2015 for the expected growth scenario the total throughput through the Port of Walvis Bay will be 3.415.000 t per annum (2.165.000 t/a general and bulk cargo and 1.250.000 t/a liquid fuel)(for the slow growth scenario the throughput will be 2.124.000 t per annum and for the rapid growth scenario 8.002.000 t per annum).

This establishment of a throughput analysis for Namibia's ports was a first effort to achieve a realistic traffic prognosis for the next twenty years. But, for the realistic implementation of upgradings and further development projects for the Port of Walvis Bay these analyses have to be verified and further fine tuned. The following problems in above analysis can be observed [29]:

- The throughput through Walvis Bay Port was based on 1990 figures and the traffic yield on Namibian roads on 1988 figures, both are outdated;

- no detailed container prognosis (type and number, ratio: full to empty containers, ratio FCL to LCL container etc.) but only tonnages;

- the total container yield for 1993/94 lies already 50% higher than the prognosis container throughput for 1995;

- the competition between different transport modes (road, rail and sea) to and from South Africa was not sufficiently addressed;

- no detailed and comprehensive port statistics were available for the Pre-Feasibility Study before the re-integration of Walvis Bay on 28.02.1994.

The transit estimates for the years 1995 (75.000 t/a), 2005 (125.000 t/a) and 2015 (175.000 t/a) are maybe realistic for the present mainly north-south orientated transport pattern. But, it does not sufficiently address the Namibian effort to change this unfavourable transport pattern into a new east-west orientated transport pattern with the realisation of the Trans-Kalahari and Trans-Caprivi links. Additional traffic quantities can be expected with the realisation of these projects. The alternative transport costs and transport times should have been considered in any traffic prognosis analysis which was not the case.

Similarly the fish landings according to the Pre- Feasibility Study [30] should be actualised because the used statistics were based on 1990 values (280.000 t for frozen fish). The total throughput for frozen fish (import, export and transit) for 1993/94 is, however, less than 100.000 t. Differences like this have to be clarified and verified.

6.2 PRESENT AND FUTURE REQUIRED QUAY CAPACITY: WALVIS BAY

The analysed short-, medium- and long-term cargo throughput through the Port of Walvis Bay have to be translated into port, berth and quay facility requirements, categories and dimensions as well as realistic ship movements for different commodities. With the present quay throughput capacity and the expected traffic prognosis throughput according to table 15 of this study the following demands on port throughput and capacity demand on the quays can be expected for the future:

The capacity limit for seven berths (one berth from the total of eight berths will not be taken into consideration because it will be used for repair, waiting and bunkering etc.) is approximately reached with 3.150.000 tons throughput per year (present quay turn-over capacity: 10 h x 250 t/h x 180 days x 7 berths). With the expected growth scenario the 2.165.000 t/a general and bulk cargo throughput will be reached in 2015. This means 69% of the total port capacity will be reached in 2015 for the expected growth scenario. For the rapid growth scenario the capacity limit will be already be exceeded in the year 2005 (3.227.000 t/a).

In these calculations it was assumed that the free availability of berth positions is restricted due to the restricted specialised handling and storage capacities and due to the fact that under normal circumstances weekends cannot be used for cargo handling in the port. Therefore it was accepted that the quay utilisation factor will be 50% (180 days) per year.

Above analysis proves that the existing quay turnover capacities are quite appropriate for the expected growth scenario until the year 2015 and further. Development investments in the Commercial Port of Walvis Bay can, however, be warranted for quality reasons and increase in efficiency (deepening of the port, improved cargo handling equipment, expansion of hardstandings and paved areas for open space storage etc.).

Regarding the future sectoral demand for the Walvis Bay Fishing Port requirements it is evident that the fishing vessels which have no own accommodation at the private fishing industry quay facilities will need additional berth facilities, even if not all facilities in the existing Fishing Port are as yet exhausted. This requirement is underscored in the Report "An Integrated Development Programme for the Fisheries Industrial System in Namibia" [31]. According to this analysis it was established for the Common User Facility that a quay length of approximately 300 m will be required: 10 small fishing vessels simultaneously in port and at sea (10 x (23 m + 7 m) quay length) or 12 bigger white fish trawlers at sea and 6 in the port (6 x (47 m + 3 m) quay length). In this requirement no reserve berths for repair, equipment and waiting periods are included (appendices 27 and 28). A detailed development master plan for infrastructure, suprastructure and equipment is warranted.

6.3 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

6.3.1 NAMPORT PLANS AND COST ESTIMATES

The NamPort Budget for the next three years from 1994/95 to 1996/97 makes provision for the financial requirements for new developments, upgradings, expansions, new equipment and maintenance. Four specific development projects will be dealt with in some more detail thereafter. The technical planning and detail design as well as the economic feasibility of these projects have not as yet been initiate. Therefore, it is not possible to implement them as short term projects.

Below it will be tried to roughly estimate the development costs for these projects, based on comparable tender prices. The estimated costs only partly include the planning and supervision consultant costs and unforeseen costs [32]. The considerable price increases [33] due to inflation are also not included. A split between local currency and foreign currency is not relevant due to the free availability of hard currency in Namibia. The overwhelming part of all construction components is originated in Namibia and/or South Africa.

6.3.2 IMPROVEMENTS OF THE TANKER JETTY

The Commercial Port of Walvis Bay makes only provision at berths 1 to 5 for the coaling of diesel fuel. In the case of full occupancy of these five berths ships which are due for coaling diesel fuel have to wait outside the port or have to coal at the dolphin-type tanker jetty (Appendix 8). The Walvis Bay tanker jetty was designed for the unloading of liquid fuel by bigger tanker ships. Due to the design parameters of the tanker jetty mooring and breasting dolphins ships with a length of less than 128 m cannot dock at the tanker jetty. Many cargo ships which have to be coaled with diesel fuel have less than 128 m length.

To overcome this deficiency NamPort plans to add two further tanker breasting dolphins to the existing jetty which with a distance of 40 m between the dolphin centre lines will allow smaller ships to coal diesel fuel. The base lines of the new and old dolphins will be the same. The additional dolphins will be constructed in reinforced concrete and founded on vertical and skew reinforced concrete piles with a reinforced concrete head slab on top of it. Additionally repairs are planned for the wooden catwalks as well as the construction of a seawall built of rock fill between the small craft harbour and the head of the tanker jetty.

The estimated project costs for these developments are N$ 3,82 millions with a construction period of three years.

6.3.3 COMMON USER FACILITY AT WALVIS FISHING PORT

Regarding the future sectoral demand for the Walvis Bay Fishing Port requirements it was established above in this study that the fishing vessels which have no own accommodation at the private fishing industry quay facilities will need additional berth facilities, even if not all facilities in the existing Fishing Port are as yet exhausted. In order to alleviate the problem NamPort proposes to construct between the small craft harbour and the tanker jetty a 220 m long and 30 m wide reinforced concrete jetty on reinforced concrete piles which can be used by fishing vessels on both sides. Furthermore the common user facility should consist of a 110 m long quay (pile support quay with front sheet-piling wall).

In order to realise this project the "old slip way" has to be demolished. Some shore embankments have to be protected with rock fill and approximately 0,24 m3 of soil has to be excavated. The preliminary cost estimate is N$ 18 millions with a construction period of two years.

6.3.4 CREATING AND PAVING ADDITIONAL OPERATIONAL AREAS

Behind the B-Cargo Shed in direction of the hinterland new operational areas with 20.000 m2 can be created and will be provided with bitumen surfacing. The existing rail tracks of the marshalling yard have to be shifted further to the south west (appendices 3 and 29). Furthermore it is planned to build a new access road with service roads to the different berth positions in the Commercial Port with a total length of 2,5 km. The estimated costs are N$ 6,9 millions with an estimated construction time of two years.

6.3.5 UPGRADING OF THE PORT SECURITY FENCE

NamPort proposes to upgrade the existing port security fence with a total length of 3,3 km and to provide furthermore for 8 access gates with control facilities. The preliminary cost estimate is N$ 2,0 millions with an estimated construction period of one year.

6.4 JUDGEMENT OF THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTS

6.4.1 IMPROVEMENTS OF THE TANKER JETTY

The proposed Port Master Development Plan should investigate whether it is feasible to expand the dolphin-type tanker jetty or rather provide the berths 6 to 8 with bunkering facilities. In such an investigation the relatively low quay utilisation factor of the existing berths has to be considered. Furthermore it has to be investigated whether it is sufficient to repair the wooden gangways or whether maintenance works at the reinforced concrete structure should also be indicated [34].

It has also to be investigated in the Port Master Development Plan how feasible an increased water depth is at the tanker jetty in order to allow not only coastal tankers but also intercontinental tankers to off -load their liquid fuel cargo. This must be seen in the light of an increased turn over of liquid fuels for the Namibian market. In this connection it has to be investigated that due to the endangered structural stability of the tanker jetty structures a lowering of the depth of more than -10,67 m is not possible and which measures will be required to increase the depth of water to more than -10,67 m.

In order to increase the safety of cargo handling and the port services further preventive measures are indicated which partly fall into the responsibility of NamPort and partly into the responsibility of other port operating companies. The following measures are proposed:

- Upgrading of the unserviceable fire extinguisher equipment
- Upgrading of an oil collecting plant
- Provision of an additional crane for the extinguisher platform for
   the handling of hose pipes
- Provision of calibration equipment for calibrating various
   protection equipments.

6.4.2 COMMON USER FACILITY AT WALVIS FISHING PORT

It is very clear that an urgent requirement exists for the creation of a common user facility at the Walvis Bay Fishing Port for all those users who are not part of the private fishing factories. In order to achieve a speedy implementation of such a facility this project should become one of the top priorities of NamPort.

The first step should be the functional planning of this project. Planning parameters like the analysed length of quay requirements under consideration of vessel types, vessel numbers, vessel turn over figures, furthermore bunkering facilities, ice handling facilities, maintenance and repair facilities, operational areas, sorting and auction sheds, cold store facilities, general store rooms and washing facilities for fish containers.

A further import planning step is the selection of the most appropriate site. It has to be checked whether the site as favoured by NamPort is the most appropriate one and whether the all community players in the fishing industry have been consulted. A common user facility site with a new wet dock north east of the existing is another proposal which has to evaluated. All relevant alternative sites for such a facility must be analysed.

It has to be established how an integrated planning process can be initiated. Responsibilities and areas of competence between the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources and NamPort have to be clearly surveyed and it has to be avoided that a new Common User Facility can be monopolised by the existing private fishing industry. Part of any detailed planning should also the establishment of a revised optimal tariff policy and a thorough cost benefit analysis as well as the comprehensive detailed design.

6.4.3 CREATING AND PAVING ADDITIONAL OPERATIONAL AREAS

The proposed realisation of additional operational areas is a step of some necessity but no direct urgent priority because the current port operations are seeming to function well under the present conditions. The NamPort planning for new operational areas and other arrangements like the relocation of railway marshalling yards and new access roads have to carefully looked into. Modern design criteria for such arrangements and optimised utilisations for operational areas (triangle and trapezoid shapes for operational areas) have to be used in order to minimise the cutting of valuable areas.

Additional planning requirements for the handling of containers are also indicated. Presently all containers have to leave the port within 72 hours. The advantage for this arrangement is that the port is not unnecessarily overcrowded. On the other side additional transport and storage costs are generated by the establishment of transitional private storage areas for containers in the town. It has to be investigated whether any modern port should have to its disposal sufficient operational areas for 40┤containers with a brut mass to up to 35 tons. Currently the existing cranage can only handle containers to up to 25 tons and the relevant very heavy container fork lifts with 45 t lifting capacity at the equipment and 35 t at the spreader will apply very heavy axle loads to all pavements in the port areas. The pavements are not designed for such high axle loads.

In the Port Development Master Plan for the Port of Walvis Bay the following points should be investigated:

- An integrated port utilisation plan divided for different cargo types
  and direct and indirect throughput classified into shed cargo, free
  area cargo and container cargo has to be developed

- Identification of different areas for NamPort and private Port
  Operating Companies

- Relocation and/or demolition of not required railway tracks based
  on the future modal transport split

- Determination of the traffic flows for different cargo and storage
  facilities

                   - Identification of optimised reserve and future port expansion areas.

The construction of an improved security fence for the port area is a future necessity but seems not to be of any urgent priority. The theft quote within the port area is not high at present. Any change in this scenario could change the priority to increase the port security. On the other hand an optimised security system is very important if the Port of Walvis Bay will get one day the status of a Free Port. In this case high value goods have to be stored in the free port area and have to be appropriately secured.

POSTSCRIPTUM (August 2001): Due to the efforts of the author of this Memorandum the Federal Republic of Germany (KfW) financed in 1995/96 the Port Development Master Plan for the Port of Walvis Bay. In consequence of this Master Plan a new container terminal with the most modern container cranage on the African continent was realised in 1998. In 1999 sections of the port and the access channel were deepened to a depth of -12,00 m in order to increase the competition capability of the Port of Walvis Bay and make it a direct competitor to the Port of Cape Town. The dredging of the berths and the access channel was financed by NamPort themselves (negotiations with the European Investment Bank in Luxembourg and the Dutch Government failed). This resulted in the upgrading of the Port of Walvis Bay to a hub port for the whole of southern Africa including South Africa (Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces). Only with these upgradings Walvis Bay became the terminal point of the Walvis Bay Corridor which was promoted by the author of this Memorandum since the independence of the Republic of Namibia.

ENDNOTES

[27] Klein, W.A.; Moorsom, R.J.B.; edited by Dr.-Ing. Klaus Dierks: A Pre-Feasibility Study of Future Port Facilities in Namibia, Windhoek, 30 November 1992

[28] Dierks, Klaus: Key Points on Namibian North Coast Port: Summary of the Pre-Feasibility Study on Future Port Facilities in Namibia with Special Reference to the M÷we Bay Port, Windhoek, 30 September 1994

[29] Dierks, Klaus: Key Points on Namibian North Coast Port: Summary of the Pre-Feasibility Study on Future Port Facilities in Namibia with Special Reference to the M÷we Bay Port, Windhoek, 30 September 1994

[30] Klein, W.A.; Moorsom, R.J.B.; edited by Dr.-Ing. Klaus Dierks: A Pre-Feasibility Study of Future Port Facilities in Namibia, Windhoek, 30 November 1992

[31] UNIDO: An Integrated Development Programme for the Fisheries Industrial System in Namibia, March 1992

[32] Burckardt, Ole and Morisse, Manfred: Hafensektor Namibias mit Schwerpunkt Walvis Bay, Schleswig, 1994

[33] Construction costs haven been risen with approximately more than 15% per annum in the average in the last five years.

[34] Burckardt, Ole and Morisse, Manfred: Hafensektor Namibias mit Schwerpunkt Walvis Bay, Schleswig, 1994

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